A PDF version is available by clicking here: The Second World War – Source Notes

Introduction

p.1 ‘the original catastrophe’: a term attributed to George Kennan; see Stephan Burgdorff and Klaus Wiegrefe (eds), Der Erste Weltkrieg. Die Urkatastrophe des 20. Jahrhunderts, Munich, 2004, pp. 23–35, quoted Ian Kershaw, Fateful Choices: Ten Decisions that Changed the World, 1940–1941, London, 2007, p. 3

‘European Civil War’: Ernst Nolte, Der europäische Bürgerkrieg, 1917–1945, Frankfurt am Main, 1988

Michael Howard, ‘A Thirty Years War? The Two World Wars in Historical Perspective’, in his Liberation or Catastrophe? Reflec- tions on the History of the Twentieth Century, London, 2007, pp. 35, 67; Gerhard Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, New York, 2005, p. 2

p.4 For the demise of the rule of law in Germany, see Michael Burleigh, The Third Reich, London, 2000, pp. 149–215; Richard J. Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, London, 2005; and Ian Kershaw,

Hitler, 1889–1936: Hubris, London, 1998

p.4 Bismarck on German moral cowardice: Sebastian Haffner, Defy- ing Hitler, London, 2002, p. 72

p.5 ‘The Jews must get out’: TBJG, part I, vol. iii, p. 351. The best analysis of research into the origins of the Holocaust and the his­ torical disputes engendered can be found in Ian Kershaw’s The

Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation, London, 2000, pp. 93–133, and Kershaw, Hitler, the Germans and the Final Solution, New Haven, 2008

p.6 ‘People of the same blood’: Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Mumbai, 1988, p. 1

p.10 Hitler’s plan to invade in October: see Adam Tooze, The Wages of

Destruction: The Making and the Breaking of the Nazi Economy, London, 2006, p. 264

p.10 ‘violent energy’ and plate glass: ibid., p. 274

p.11 ‘The British and the French’: Sebastian Haffner, The Meaning of Hitler, London, 1979, p. 18

‘I am now fifty’: ibid., p. 19

Hitler’s speech of 30 January 1939: Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1058, quoted Ian Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, London, 2000, pp. 152–3

p.12 ‘had never met’: CCA, Duff Cooper Papers, DUFC 8/1/14, quoted Richard Overy, 1939: Countdown to War, London, 2009, p. 29

1: The Outbreak of War

p.14 Zhukov’s summons to Moscow: Otto Preston Chaney, Zhukov, Norman, Okla., 1971, pp. 62–5

‘For you I have this request’: quoted Ella Zhukova, ‘Interesy ottsa’, in I. G. Aleksandrov (ed.), Marshal Zhukov: Polkovodets i chelovek, 2 vols, Moscow, 1988, vol. i, p. 38

‘mediocre, faceless, intellectually dim’: Dimitri Volkogonov, in Harold Shukman (ed.), Stalin’s Generals, London, 1993, p. 313 ‘the biggest bag of shit in the army’: quoted Robert Edwards, White Death: Russia’s War on Finland, 1939–1940, London, 2006, p. 96

p.15 For the development and course of the growing conflict, see Alvin D. Coox, Nomonhan: Japan against Russia, 1939, 2 vols, Stanford, 1985; and Katsu H. Young, ‘The Nomonhan Incident: Imperial Japan and the Soviet Union’, in Monumenta Nipponica, vol. 22, no. 1/2, 1967, pp. 82–102

p.16 ‘field initiative’: Mark R. Peattie, ‘The Dragon’s Seed’, in Mark Peattie, Edward Drea and Hans van de Ven, The Battle for China:

Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937– 1945, Stanford, 2011, p. 55

p.17 Zhukov’s deception: Chaney, Zhukov, pp. 69–70

For detailed accounts of the battle see Edward J. Drea, Nomon- han: Japanese–Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939, Fort Leavenworth, 1981; Coox, Nomonhan: Japan against Russia; and Georgii Zhukov, Marshal Zhukov: Kakim my yego pomnim, Moscow, 1988

p.18 ‘because of our indecisiveness’: quoted Chaney, Zhukov, p. 73 Red Army casualties at Khalkhin Gol: G. F. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century, London, 1997, p. 53

p.19 ‘Jewish democracy’: GSWW, vol. i, p. 685

p.20 ‘mischievous’: David Dilks (ed.), The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, London, 1971, p. 175

p.21 ‘with the Germans’: quoted Terry Charman, Outbreak 1939: The World Goes to War, London, 2009, p. 46

‘There is no problem’: Raymond James Sontag and James Stuart Beddie (eds), Nazi–Soviet Relations, 1939–1941, New York, 1948, p. 38

p.22 ‘Purge the ministry’: quoted Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, London, 2003, p. 269

p.23 ‘very self­confident’: JJG, 17.8.39

Grossadmiral Raeder’s orders: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 153

‘I’ve got them!’: Albert Speer, quoted Gitta Sereny, Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth, London, 1995, p. 207

‘Germans in cafés’: JJG, 21.8.39

‘the first impression in Berlin’: FRNH, p. 9 p.24 ‘the corporal’: ibid., p. 10

‘We had moved all’: JJG, 25.8.39

p.26 ‘produced a lengthy document’: FRNH, p. 17 ‘Grandmother dead!’: Overy, 1939, p. 68

2: ‘The Wholesale Destruction of Poland’

p.27 ‘The wholesale destruction of Poland’: Hitler, 22.8.39, DGFP, Series D, vol. vii, no. 193

‘The dark forest’: BA­MA, RH39/618, quoted Jochen Böhler,

Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg. Die Wehrmacht in Polen, 1939, Frankfurt am Main, 2006, p. 52

Arrests in Danzig: Overy, 1939, pp. 69–70

Danzig Anatomical Medical Institute and Stutthof: GARF 9401/2/96 and RGVA 32904/1/19

German army three million men: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 90

p.29 ‘the bulk of its forces’: SHD­DAT, quoted Claude Quétel, L’Impar- donnable Défaite, Paris, 2010, p. 196

francs-tireurs and sabotage: BA­MA RH37/1381; RH26­208/5,

quoted Böhler, Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg, p. 40 ‘friendly to the Bolsheviks’: NA II RG 242, T­79, R.131, 595 ‘swift and ruthless’: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 82

p.30 Hitler to Reichstag: 1.9.39, Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1307

‘The actual word’: Anatole de Monzie, Ci-devant, Paris, 1941,

quoted Quétel, L’Impardonnable Défaite, p. 204

p.31 ‘stupid and obstinate attitude’: Georges Bonnet, Dans la tour- mente: 1938–1948, Paris, 1971, quoted Quétel, L’Impardonnable Défaite, p. 195

p.33 ‘What now?’: Paul Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, New York, 1950, pp. 157–8

‘an extremely dangerous fool’: quoted Harold Nicolson, Friday Mornings, 1941–1944, London, 1944, p. 218

‘Nearly every town’: Mass Observation, quoted Daniel Swift, Bomber County, London, 2010, p. 118

p.34 The transformation of London: Molly Panter­Downes, London War Notes, 1939–1945, London, 1971, pp. 3–6

Loss of Athenia: Overy, 1939, pp. 107–8

p.35 ‘It’s to present us’: Général P. de Villelume, Journal d’une défaite: août 1939–juin 1940, Paris, 1976, quoted Quétel, L’Impardonnable Défaite, p. 211

Killing of 1,000 Germans in Bydgoszcz: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 138 300 dead after an uprising: Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich at

War: How the Nazis Led Germany from Conquest to Disaster, London, 2008, p. 8

p.36 ‘appallingly dirty and very backward’: letter 17.9.39, BfZ­SS 28774, quoted Böhler, Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg, p. 43; see also BA­MA RH37/5024; RH53­18/152; RH37/5024

‘evasive eyes’: quoted Klaus Latzel, Deutsche Soldaten – national-

sozialistischer Krieg? Kriegserlebnis – Kriegserfahrung 1939–1945, Paderborn, 1998, p. 153

‘ingratiatingly friendly’: BA­MA RH41/1012 (‘katzenfreundlich’) ‘respectfully took off their hats’: BA­MA RH37/6891, p. 11 (‘zogen respektvoll den Hut’)

Stürmer: BA­MA RH28­1/255 ‘Every person’: BA­MA RH53­18/17

Freischärlerpsychose: BA­MA RH26­4/3, quoted Böhler, Auftakt

zum Vernichtungskrieg, p. 109

p.37 16,000 civilians executed: Böhler, Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg, pp. 241­2

65,000 killed, and massacres near Mniszek and Karlshof: Evans,

The Third Reich at War, pp. 14–15

p.38 Kartoffelkrieg: TBJG, part I, vol. vii, p. 92

p.39 ‘Mein Pamph’: Panter­Downes, London War Notes, p. 19

p.40 Poles in Romania: Adam Zamoyski, The Forgotten Few: The Polish Air Force in the Second World War, London, 1995, pp. 35–43

p.41 ‘The enemy always came’: K. S. Karol, ‘A Polish Cadet in Inaction’,

in his Between Two Worlds: The Life of a Young Pole in Russia, New York, 1987, quoted Jon E. Lewis, Eyewitness World War II, Philadelphia, 2008, pp. 36–7

p.42 25,000 ‘undesirables’: V. N. Zemskov, ‘Prinuditelnye Migratsii iz Pribaltiki v 1940–1950­kh godakh’, Otechestvennyy Arkhiv, no. 1, 1993, p. 4, quoted Geoffrey Roberts, Stalin’s Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939-1953, New Haven, 2006, p. 45

Polish and German casualty figures: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 124; Soviet casualties, Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses, p. 59 p.43 ‘Gentlemen. You have seen’: Joseph W. Grigg, ‘Poland: Inside

fallen Warsaw’, United Press, 6.10.39

‘cheap slaves’: Franz Halder, Generaloberst Halder: Kriegstage-

buch. Tägliche Aufzeichnungen des Chefs des Generalstabes des Heeres, 1939–1942, 3 vols, Stutt­gart, 1962–4, vol. i: Vom Polenfeld-

zug bis zum Ende der Westoffensive, p. 107

p.44 ‘from bitterness over atrocities’: GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 811

‘We have seen’: 12.10.39, BA­MA RH41/1177, quoted Böhler,

Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg, p. 7

‘you can’t run a war’: GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 811

p.45 ‘a clear­out’: Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. i, p. 79, quoted Evans,

The Third Reich at War, p. 16

p.46 Order 00485 and anti­Polish policy: see Timothy Snyder, Blood- lands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin, London, 2010, pp. 89–104 ‘Very good!’: Leonid Naumov, Stalin i NKVD, Moscow, 2007, pp. 299–300, quoted ibid., p. 96

p.47 ‘You are Polish elite’: Wesley Adamczyk, When God Looked the Other Way: An Odyssey of War, Exile and Redemption, Chicago, 2006, pp. 26–7, quoted Matthew Kelly, Finding Poland, London, 2010, p. 62.

‘Once a Pole, always a kulak’: quoted Snyder, Bloodlands, p. 86 Sewing machines: Kelly, Finding Poland, p. 63. See also accounts in Association of the Families of the Borderland Settlers, Stalin’s

Ethnic Cleansing in Eastern Poland: Tales of the Deported, 1940– 1946, London, 2000

3: From Phoney War to Blitzkrieg

p.49 ‘a strange, somnambulistic quality’: Panter­Downes, London War Notes, p. 21

London in the blackout: Charman, Outbreak 1939, pp. 322–3 HMS Triton: SWWEC, Everyone’s War, no. 20, Winter 2009, p. 60

p.50 ‘the spirit of Zossen’: quoted Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, p. 330

p.52 Soviet demands on Finland: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 12

p.54 ‘For four miles’: Virginia Cowles, Sunday Times, 4.2.40

‘How strange were these’: Geoffrey Cox, Countdown to War: A Personal Memoir of Europe, 1938–1940, London, 1988, pp. 176–7 p.55 ‘summed up in a calm British’: Panter­Downes, London War Notes,

p. 25

p.57 Nazi Euthanasia programme: Weinberg, A World at Arms, pp. 96–7, and Evans, The Third Reich at War, pp. 75–105

p.59 Soviet casualties in Finland: Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and

Combat Losses, p. 58

Deportations of Poles and Polish Jews in 1940: Snyder, Bloodlands, pp. 140–1

p.60 Tukhachevsky on the French army: Pravda, 29.3.35

Reuter’s correspondent: Gordon Waterfield, What Happened to France, London, 1940, p. 16

p.61 ‘One can’t spend’: Georges Sadoul, Journal de guerre, Paris, 1972, 12.12.39

‘a question only’: Jean­Paul Sartre, Les Carnets de la drôle de guerre (2 septembre 1939–20 juillet 1940), Paris, 1983, p. 142 ‘Every exercise was considered’: Édouard Ruby, Sedan, terre d’épreuve, Paris, 1948, quoted Alistair Horne, To Lose a Battle, London, 1969, p. 163

‘to be inert’: quoted Quétel, L’Impardonnable Défaite, p. 253 Bonnet’s nephew: Cox, Countdown to War, p. 142

‘a woman whose’: ibid., p. 138

p.62 Polish government in exile and underground army: GSWW, vol. ii, pp. 141–2

4: The Dragon and the Rising Sun

p.63 ‘Sympathy with the people’: Agnes Smedley, China Fights Back, London, 1938, p. 30; ‘peasant serfs’: ibid., p. 28

‘In Shanghai’: Theodore H. White and Annalee Jacoby, Thunder out of China, New York, 1946, p. xiii

‘Give! Give!’: Smedley, China Fights Back, p. 31

p.66 ‘The Communists are a’: quoted Stephen Mackinnon, ‘The De­ fense of the Central Yangtze’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The

Battle for China, p. 184

‘menace to our rear’: quoted Edward J. Drea, ‘The Japanese Army on the Eve of War’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 107

p.67 Marco Polo bridge incident: Yang Tianshi, ‘Chiang Kai­shek and the Battles of Shanghai and Nanjing’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 143

p.68 ‘Suddenly, the war’: Smedley, China Fights Back, p. 132

p.70 General Chang Ching­chong and Shanghai: Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, Mao: The Unknown Story, London, 2007, pp. 245–6

Failed bombing of the Izumo: Diana Lary, The Chinese People

at War: Human Suffering and Social Transformation, 1937–1945, Cambridge, 2010, pp. 22–3

The Battle of Shanghai: see Yang Tianshi, ‘Chiang Kai­shek and the Battles of Shanghai and Nanjing’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 145–54

p.72 mustard gas and incendiaries: Hattori Satoshi, ‘Japanese Opera­ tions from July to December 1937’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 176

16th Division: ibid., p. 179

‘besides mass executions’: Dr Rosen to German Foreign Ministry, 20.1.38, quoted John Rabe, The Good German of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe, New York, 1998, p. 145. The diary of Rabe, the local director of Siemens and the organizer of the international safety zone, provides the most reliable account of the atrocities committed in Nanking

p.73 For preparation of Japanese soldiers, see Kawano Hitoshi, ‘Japa­ nese Combat Morale’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 332–4

‘below pigs’: Kondo Hajime, quoted Laurence Rees, Their Darkest Hour: People Tested to the Extreme in WWII, London, 2007, p. 61 ‘All new recruits’: Cpl Nakamura’s diary taken from his body by New Fourth Army, quoted Agnes Smedley, Battle Hymn of China, London, 1944, p. 186

‘My emotion must have been paralyzed’: Shimada Toshio, quoted Kawano, ‘Japanese Combat Morale’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 341

p.74 ‘I am totally puzzled’: Rabe, The Good German of Nanking, 22.1.38, p. 148; ‘You can’t breathe’: ibid., p. 172

‘for the use of’: Smedley, China Fights Back, pp. 227 and 230 2,000 women taken from Soochow: Lary, The Chinese People at War, p. 25

Battalion commander 37th Division: Kawano, ‘Japanese Combat Morale’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 351

On the subject of ‘comfort women’ and rape, see Yuki Tanaka,

Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II, Oxford, 1996, pp. 94–7

p.75 ‘a building in which’: Smedley, Battle Hymn of China, p. 206

p.76 For Wuhan and Taierchuang, see Tobe Ryo¨ichi, ‘The Japanese Eleventh Army in Central China, 1938–1941’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 208–9

p.77 ‘use water as a substitute’: quoted Lary, The Chinese People at War, p. 61

Red Army pilots in China: John W. Garver, Chinese–Soviet Rela-

tions, 1937–1945: The Diplomacy of Chinese Nationalism, Oxford, 1988, pp. 40–1; and Hagiwara Mitsuru, ‘Japanese Air Campaigns in China’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 245–6

p.79 Central Committee Plenum, September–October 1938: see Chang and Halliday, Mao, pp. 260–4

‘They roped them together’: Smedley, China Fights Back, p. 156 p.80 ‘We seized the village’: diary taken by New Fourth Army, quoted

Smedley, Battle Hymn of China, pp. 185–6

Nationalist and Communist clashes in 1939: Garver, Chinese–

Soviet Relations, pp. 81–2

p.83 ‘the criminal traitor’: van de Ven, War and Nationalism in China,

p.237

5:Norway and Denmark

p.84 The munitions crisis: see Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 328–57

‘without regard to the future’: Göring to Generalmajor Thomas, 30.1.40, quoted ibid., p. 357

p.87 Luftwaffe sinking two German destroyers: GSWW, vol. ii, pp. 170–1

p.90 ‘peaceful occupation’: ibid., p. 212

p.92 Hitler and Manstein: see Karl­Heinz Frieser, The Blitzkrieg Legend: The 1940 Campaign in the West, Annapolis, Md, pp. 79–81

p.93 ‘the nerveless philosopher’: Horne, To Lose a Battle, p. 155 p.94 ‘greatest victory’: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 280

6: Onslaught in the West

p.95 Belgian soldiers planting pansies: Cox, Countdown to War, pp. 194–5

Paris in early May: see Horne, To Lose a Battle, pp. 171–2

p.96 ‘The battle beginning’: Nicolaus von Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, 1937–1945, Mainz, 1980, p. 228

p.98 Deuxième Bureau and ‘principal axis’: Horne, To Lose a Battle, p. 169

Huntziger: see ibid., p. 165; and for Corap, see Julian Jackson, The Fall of France: The Nazi Invasion of 1940, Oxford, 2003, p. 35

p.101 Germans breaking French codes: Frieser, The Blitzkrieg Legend, p. 87

p.102 ‘the French insouciance’: Zamoyski, The Forgotten Few, p. 51 Aircraft destroyed: James Holland, The Battle of Britain, London, 2010, pp. 67–8

p.103 ‘permit to enter Belgium’: Robin McNish, Iron Division: The His- tory of the 3rd Division, London, 2000, p. 77

p.104 Delayed start of French formations: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 283 ‘The Belgians stood cheering’: Cox, Countdown to War, p. 203

p.106 ‘They walked, they rode’: ibid., p. 213

‘Despair in Berlin’: quoted Horne, To Lose a Battle, p. 209 p.107 ‘Hardly had the first boats’: Hans von Luck, Panzer Commander,

London, 1989, p. 38

p.109 ‘The atmosphere was that of a family’: André Beaufre, The Fall of France, London, 1967, p. 183

p.111 ‘My Führer, I congratulate you’: quoted Lev Kopelev, Ease my Sorrows, New York, 1983, pp. 198–9

p.113 ‘the ruins of’: Alexander Stahlberg, Bounden Duty, London, 1990, p. 132

‘Marching, marching’: Riedel, 20.5.40, BfZ­SS

German shortage of munitions and need for more time: Frieser,

The Blitzkrieg Legend, pp. 21–3

p.114 ‘little hysterical’: quoted Horne, To Lose a Battle, p. 331

p.115 ‘The road to Paris is open’: Roland de Margerie, Journal, 1939– 1940, Paris, 2010, pp. 180–1

‘As you are no doubt aware’: TNA PREM 3/468/201 p.116 ‘If members of the present’: ibid.

‘The wind in eddies’: Margerie, Journal, p. 181

p.117 ‘Utter dejection’: Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War, 6 vols, London, 1948–53, vol. ii: Their Finest Hour, p. 42

‘avec stupeur’: ibid., p. 192

p.118 ‘They are the most pathetic sight’: Field Marshal Lord Alan­ brooke, War Diaries, 1939–1945, London, 2001, p. 67

7: The Fall of France

p.120 Kleist and Guderian at Saint­Quentin: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 287

p.121 ‘Colonel Motors’: Margerie, Journal, p. 12

‘Go on, de Gaulle!’: Charles de Gaulle, Mémoires de guerre, 3 vols, Paris, 1954–9, vol. i: L’Appel, 1940–1942, p. 30

p.122 André Maurois: Margerie, Journal, p. 201

‘I think I see my way through’: quoted Martin Gilbert, Finest Hour: Winston S. Churchill, 1940–41, London, 1983, p. 358

p.123 Cripps in Moscow: see Gabriel Gorodetsky, Grand Delusion: Stalin and the German Invasion of Russia, New Haven and London, 1999, pp. 19–22

p.125 For the Arras counter­attack, see Hugh Sebag­Montefiore,

Dunkirk: Fight to the Last Man, London, 2007, pp. 142–55 p.126 ‘The face of war is dreadful’: Sold. Hans B., 7.kl.Kw.Kol.f.Betr.

St./Inf.Div.Kol.269, BfZ­SS

p.127 ‘By the roads, shattered’: Gefr. Ludwig D., Rgts.Stab/Art.Rgt.69, Tuesday, 21.5.40, BfZ­SS

‘There are many, many’: Gefr. Konrad F., 5.Kp./Inf.Rgt.43, 1.Inf. Div., Wednesday, 22.5.40, BfZ­SS

Massacres of colonial troops: Christophe Dutrône, Ils se sont battus: mai–juin 1940, Paris, 2010, p. 150

p.128 ‘for [the] sake of Allied solidarity’: TNA WO 106/1693 and 1750, quoted Sebag­Montefiore, Dunkirk, p. 228

‘only a miracle can save France’: Paul Addison and Jeremy Crang (eds), Listening to Britain, London, 2010, 22.5.40, p. 19

‘The whiter the collar, the less the assurance’: ibid., p. 39 p.129 ‘evidence before us’: ibid., p. 31

‘Nothing but a miracle’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 67

Panzer Corps Kleist losses: BA­MA, W 6965a and Wi/1F5.366, quoted GSWW, vol. ii, p. 290

Lack of German motor transport: Frieser, The Blitzkrieg Legend, p. 29

p.130 ‘predominant consideration’: TNA WO 106/1750, quoted Sebag­ Montefiore, Dunkirk, p. 250

‘criminal lack of prudence’: J. Paul­Boncour, Entre deux guerres, vol. iii, Paris, 1946, quoted Quétel, L’Impardonnable Défaite, p. 303

p.131 ‘This time I’ll declare war’: quoted GSWW, vol. iii, p. 62 Bismarck’s comment on Italy: quoted John Lukacs, Five Days in London: May 1940, New Haven, 1999

‘thunderclaps mingled’: Riedel, 26.5.40, BfZ­SS

‘British Strategy in a Certain Eventuality’: TNA CAB 66–7 p.132 ‘in order to reduce proportionately’: Margerie, Journal, p. 239

‘We must not get entangled’: TNA CAB 65/13 ‘fall back upon the coast’: TNA WO 106/1750

p.133 1st Armoured Division: see Sebag­Montefiore, Dunkirk, pp. 272–3

p.134 ‘Even if we were beaten’: TNA CAB 65/13/161, quoted Gilbert,

Finest Hour, p. 412

‘Finally, we have a scapegoat!’: Leca quoted Margerie, Journal, p. 253

p.135 ‘We should find that all’: TNA CAB 65/13 ‘slave state’: ibid.

p.136 ‘like a flock of huge infernal seagulls’: Lieutenant P. D. Elliman, 1st HAA Regiment, quoted Sebag­Montefiore, Dunkirk, p. 387

p.137 British and French tensions at Dunkirk: see ibid., pp. 404–11 p.138 Allied troops taken off from Dunkirk port and beaches: GSWW,

vol. ii, pp. 293 and 295; Sebag­Montefiore, Dunkirk, pp. 540–1, 628–9

p.139 ‘the Sikorski tourists’: SHD­DAT 1 K 543 1

‘almost too good’, and rumours: Addison and Crang, Listening to Britain, pp. 71, 53

p.141 French and Italian losses in the Alps: GSWW, vol. iii, p. 247 ‘puffy with fatigue’: Cox, Countdown to War, p. 236

‘poor relations at a funeral reception’: Edward Spears, Assign- ment to Catastrophe, vol. ii: The Fall of France, London, 1954, p. 138

‘That would be the destruction of the country!’: quoted Quétel,

L’Impardonnable Défaite, p. 330

p.142 ‘who have refused’: quoted Paul Baudouin, Private Diaries: March 1940– January 1941, London, 1948, in Jackson, The Fall of France, 2003, p. 135

‘This country had been rotted’: Spears, Assignment to Catastro- phe, vol. ii, p. 171

Surrender of Paris: Charles Glass, Americans in Paris: Life and Death under Nazi Occupation, 1940–1944, London, 2009, pp. 11–22

p.143 ‘I will remain’: Philippe Pétain, Actes et écrits, Paris, 1974, p. 365 p.144 Weygand’s regret: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 80

‘it was impossible’: ibid., p. 81

‘We were the first to enter’: Sold. Paul Lehmann, Inf.Div.62, 28.6.40, BfZ­SS

p.146 Evacuation and sinking of Lancastria: Sebag­Montefiore, Dunkirk, pp. 486–95

8: Operation Sealion and the Battle of Britain

p.148 ‘The disgrace is now’: TBJG, part I, vol. viii, p. 186

p.149 ‘for continuing the war against Britain’: BA­MA RM 7/255, quoted GSWW, vol. iii, p. 131

‘If Great Britain is not forced’: quoted Quétel, L’Impardonnable Défaite, p. 384

‘most glorious victory of all time’; Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1533, quoted Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, p. 299

p.150 ‘You are charged with one’: quoted Colin Smith, England’s Last War against France, London, 2009, p. 62

‘the orders of His Majesty’s Government’: TNA ADM 399/192 p.151 ‘tantamount to a declaration of war’: TNA ADM 199/391

p.152 Hitler’s return to Berlin: Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, pp. 300–1; and Roger Moorhouse, Berlin at War: Life and Death in Hitler’s Capital, 1939–1945, London, 2010, pp. 61–3

p.153 ‘cheering thousands who shouted’: New York Times, 7 July 1940 ‘Studie Nordwest’: finalized 13.12.40, BA­MA RM 7/894, quoted GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 525, n. 11

p.154 ‘Special Search List’, or ‘Sonderfahndungsliste’: Walter Schellen­ berg, Invasion 1940: The Nazi Invasion Plan for Britain, London, 2000

p.155 ‘appeal to reason’: Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1558

‘Now there’s a lot’: Sold. Paul Lehmann, Inf.Div.62, 28.6.40, BfZ­SS

p.156 Dowding: quoted Max Hastings, Finest Years: Churchill as War- lord, 1940–45, London, 2009, p. 67

p.157 For Polish airmen in Britain, see Zamoyski, The Forgotten Few p.158 ‘With Russia smashed’: quoted Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. ii :

Von der geplanten Landung in England bis zum Beginn des Ost- feldzuges, p. 49

p.159 ‘the first soldier of the Reich’: BA­MA RH 19I/50, quoted GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 529

‘child’s play’: Albert Speer, Erinnerungen, Frankfurt am Main, 1969, p. 188, quoted Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, p. 305 ‘its ground­support organization’: BA–MA RL 2/v. 3021, quoted GSWW, vol. ii, p. 378

‘dear fighter boys’: Patrick Bishop, Fighter Boys, London, 2003, p. 239

p.161 Fighter squadron routine: ibid.; Holland, The Battle of Britain; Larry Forrester, Fly for your Life, London, 1956

p.163 ‘People with pitchforks’: quoted Zamoyski, The Forgotten Few, p. 84

‘a savage, primitive exaltation’: quoted Bishop, Fighter Boys, p. 204

Polish pilots and baled­out Germans: Zamoyski, The Forgotten Few, p. 71

p.167 Losses August and September: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 388; October losses: ibid., p. 403

‘You say that England’: V. N. Pavlov, ‘Avtobiograficheskie Zam­ etki’, in Novaya i noveishaya istoriya, Moscow, 2000, p. 105

p.168 ‘prolonged banshee howlings’: quoted Panter­Downes, London War Notes, pp. 97–8; ‘The sirens go off’: ibid.

‘Worse than the tedium’: Peter Quennell, The Wanton Chase, London, 1980, p. 15

‘The view now prevails’: Ernst von Weizsäcker, Die Weizsäcker- Papiere, 1933–1950, Berlin, 1974, p. 225

9: Reverberations

p.170 For the Ichang operation, see Tobe Ryo¨ichi, ‘The Japanese Elev­ enth Army in Central China, 1938–1941’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 207–29

‘What about the wounded?’: Smedley, Battle Hymn of China, pp. 343–4

p.171 ‘China, they said, couldn’t fight’: ibid., p. 348

p.172 62,000 Japanese soldiers killed in China: Kershaw, Fateful Choices, p. 99

‘Hundred Regiments’ campaign: Garver, Chinese–Soviet Rela- tions, pp. 140–1

‘parallel war’: GSWW, vol. iii, p. 2 p.173 Italian armed forces in 1940: ibid., p. 68

p.174 ‘as a circus clown’: Weizsäcker, Die Weizsäcker-Papiere, p. 206 p.175 Franco and Hitler at Hendaye: Stanley G. Payne, Franco and

Hitler, New Haven, 2008, pp. 90–4; and Javier Tusell, Franco,

España y la II Guerra Mundial: Entre el Eje y la Neutralidad, Madrid, 1995, pp. 83–201

‘alianza espiritual’: Tusell, Franco, España y la II Guerra Mun- dial, p. 159

p.176 ‘The Führer sees the value’: KTB OKW, vol. i, 15.11.40, p. 177 ‘like a Jew’: ibid., p. 144 (‘como un judío que quiere traficar con las más sagradas posesiones’)

‘Jesuit swine’: Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. i, p. 670 p.177 ‘territorially and materially’: GSWW, vol. iii, p. 194 p.178 ‘accept everything for the time being’: The Times, 2.7.40

‘lady friend’: Dudley Clarke, The Eleventh at War, London, 1952, p. 95; and Michael Carver, Out of Step, London, 1989, pp. 54–5 ‘foregone conclusion’: Count Galeazzo Ciano, Ciano’s Diplo- matic Papers, London, 1948, p. 273

p.179 ‘Hitler keeps confronting me’: ibid., 12.10.40, p. 297

p.181 macaronides: Mark Mazower, Inside Hitler’s Greece: The Experi- ence of Occupation, 1941–44, New Haven, 1993

Greeks in Egypt: Artemis Cooper, Cairo in the War, 1939–1945, London, 1989, p. 59

p.182 Italian casualties in Greece and Albania: GSWW, vol. iii, p. 448 ‘purred like six cats’: Churchill, The Second World War, vol. ii, p. 480

10: Hitler’s Balkan War

p.188 ‘clearly understood’: KTB OKW, vol. i, 10.12.40, p. 222

p.191 ‘Well, I don’t know about that’: Sir Francis de Guingand, Gener- als at War, London, 1964, p. 33

p.192 ‘gasping for revenge’: Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, p. 223 p.193 ‘final proof’: Domarus, vol. ii, pp. 1726ff.

Civilian casualties in Belgrade: GSWW, vol. iii, p. 498

‘At 05.30 hours the attack’: Gefr. G., Art.Rgt.119, 11. Pz.Div., BfZ­SS 13/517A

‘At the command post’: Richthofen KTB, 6.4.41, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 53

p.194 ‘That’s war!’: Richthofen KTB, 10.4.41, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 59

‘astonishing news’: Richthofen KTB, 9.4.41, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 58

‘just like a picture’: Major G. de Winton, quoted Antony Beevor,

Crete: The Battle and the Resistance, London, 1990, p. 36 ‘Near Vevi’: OL 2042, TNA DEFE 3/891

p.195 ‘In just under five’: Gefr. G., Art.Rgt.119, 11.Pz.Div., 17.4.41, BfZ­SS 13 517A

‘Did [the Serbs] perhaps believe’: Sold. Erich N., 8.Kp./SS­Rgt. (mot.) DF, SS­Div. Reich, 10.5.41, BfZ­SS 11 707 E

p.196 ‘by moonlight’: Beevor, Crete, p. 38

2 million drachmas and starvation: Mazower, Inside Hitler’s Greece, p. xiii

p.197 ‘Dünkirchen-Wunder’: Richthofen KTB, 10.4.41, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 60

‘If I saw the enemy’: quoted GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 536

‘so that our children’: Hauptmann Friedrich M., 73.Inf.Div., BfZ­SS 20 305

p.198 For the debate over the delay to Barbarossa, see Martin van Creveld, Hitler’s Strategy, 1940–1941: The Balkan Clue, London, 1973; Salonika symposium, May 1991; GSWW, vol. iii, p. 525; Müller­Hillebrand, ‘Improvisierung’, 78, MGFA­P 030; Andreas Hillgruber, Hitlers Strategie, Frankfurt am Main, 1965, pp. 504ff.; and Andrew L. Zapantis, Greek–Soviet Relations, 1917–1941, New York, 1983, pp. 498 ff.

p.200 ‘air landing of’: OL 2167, TNA DEFE 3/891

‘five to six thousand airborne’: TNA PREM 3/109

p.201 ‘seaborne invasion’: Freyberg to Wavell, quoted Churchill, The Second World War, vol. iii: The Grand Alliance, p. 243

‘a beach landing with tanks’: Freyberg, quoted John Connell,

Wavell: Scholar and Soldier, London, 1964, p. 454

‘We for our part’: quoted Ian Stewart, The Struggle for Crete, Oxford, 1955, p. 108

‘It ought to be a fine’: quoted Churchill, The Second World War, vol. iii, p. 241

p.203 ‘They’re dead on time’: Woodhouse, quoted C. Hadjipateras and M. Fafalios, Crete 1941, Athens, 1989, p. 13

p.206 ‘We do not reinforce failure’: Brigadier Ray Sandover, conversa­ tion with the author, 12.10.90

p.207 ‘seaborne attack’: New Zealand Division war diary, quoted Stew­ art, The Struggle for Crete, p. 278

Destination of Light Ships Group: ‘Einsatz Kreta’, BA­MA RL 33/98

p.209 ‘Enemy still shooting’: Richthofen KTB, 28.5.41, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 115

German losses: BA­MA ZA 3/19 and RL2 III/95

11: Africa and the Atlantic

p.210 Hitler’s dislike of Generalleutnant von Funck: Gen der Artillerie Walter Warlimont, ETHINT 1

p.211 Failure to bomb Benghazi: Adalbert von Taysen, Tobruk 1941: Der Kampf in Nordafrika, Freiburg, 1976, quoted Martin Kitchen, Rommel’s Desert War: Waging World War II in North Africa, 1941–1943, Cambridge, 2009, p. 54

p.212 ‘Arabo Morte’ etc.: Kitchen, Rommel’s Desert War, p. 17

p.213 ‘All day long he races’: Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. ii, 23.4.41, p. 381, quoted ibid., p. 100

‘perhaps the only man’: Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. ii, 23.4.41, p. 385

p.214 ‘the crux of the problem’: ibid., p. 412

p.215 ‘The war is becoming ever’: Richthofen KTB, 19.5.41, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 100

p.216 ‘greatest tank battle’: Gefr. Wolfgang H., 15.Pz.Div., 21.6.41, BfZ­SS 17 338

p.217 On Roosevelt and Marshall, see Andrew Roberts, Masters and

Commanders: How Roosevelt, Churchill, Marshall and Alan- brooke Won the War in the West, London, 2008, pp. 24–34

p.218 ‘a decisive act of’: Churchill to FDR, quoted Winston Churchill,

The Second World War, vol. ii, p. 498 ‘the most unsordid’: ibid., p. 503

p.219 American conditions for Lend–Lease: Hastings, Finest Years, pp. 171–4

German reaction to Lend–Lease: DGFP, Series D, vol. xii, no. 146, 10.3.41, pp. 258–9

p.220 Twenty­two U­boats operational in February 1941: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 343

Admiral Scheer: ibid., p. 353

12: Barbarossa

p.224 Chiang Kai­shek and Stalin: Garver, Chinese–Soviet Relations, pp. 112–18

Foreign Minister Matsuoka drunk on departure: Valentin M. Berezhkov, At Stalin’s Side, New York, 1994, p. 205

‘We must always stay’: Krebs letter of 15.4.41, BA­MA MSg1/1207 p.225 For Backe and the Hunger Plan, see Lizzie Collingham, The Taste of War: World War II and the Battle for Food, London, 2011, pp.

32–8; Tooze, The Wages of Destruction, pp. 173–5, 476–80 p.226 15 May document: for the best analysis see Chris Bellamy, Ab-

solute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War, London, 2007, pp. 99–121; also Constantine Pleshakov, Stalin’s Folly: The

Secret History of the German Invasion of Russia, June 1941, London, 2005, pp. 75–84; Bianka Pietrow­Ennker (ed.), Präven- tivkrieg? Der deutsche Angriff auf die Sowjetunion, Frankfurt am Main, 2000; and for the conspiracy theorists, Viktor Suvorov,

Icebreaker: Who Started the Second World War?, London, 1990; Heinz Magenheimer, Hitler’s War, London, 2002, pp. 51–64. The whole debate was examined by the Russian Association of the Second World War Historians on 28.12.97. (Information Bulle­ tin, No.4, 1998) and they rightly concluded that the Red Army was simply in no condition to launch an offensive. I am grateful to their president, Professor O.A. Rzheshevsky, for sending me the verbatim report.

p.227 ‘Disinformation has now reached ambassadorial level!’: Pravda, 22.6.89

p.228 Deportations from Baltic states: Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story of its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev, London, 1990, p. 203

‘This is a war of extermination’: Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. ii, pp. 336–7

‘Dortmund’, ‘Thus the start’: KTB OKW, vol. i, p. 417

p.229 ‘on the eve of’: Sold. Paul B., Flak­Sonderger Wrkst. Zug 13, 22.6.41, BfZ­SS L 46 281

‘Early tomorrow morning’: Sold. Kurt U., 1.San.Kp.91, 6.Geb. Div., 21.6.41, BfZ­SS

‘My conviction is’: Fw. Herbert E., 2.Kp./Nachr.Abt.SS, SS­Div. Reich, BfZ­SS

p.230 ‘thirty­nine aircraft incursions’: Maslennikov, RGVA 38652/1/58 p.231 ‘In the course of the morning’: KTB OKW, vol. i, p. 417

p.233 ‘impetuous dash’: Erich von Manstein, Lost Victories, London, 1982, p. 187

p.234 ‘Of course I’ll be there’: Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, p. 233 ‘For the first time in years’: quoted Richard Lourie, Sakharov: A Biography, Hanover, NH, 2002, p. 52

‘Finally, after a successful attack’: RGALI 1710/3/43

p.235 ‘The Russian is a’: Sold. Rudolf B., Stab/Nachsch.Btl.553, 27.7.41, BfZ­SS

NKVD massacres of prisoners: Anne Applebaum, Gulag: A His- tory of the Soviet Camps, London, 2003, pp. 377–8; and Polish prisoners, Snyder, Bloodlands, p. 194

‘Lenin founded our state’: quoted Richard Overy, Russia’s War, London, 1999, p. 78

p.236 ‘The whole field’: Aleksandr Tvardovsky, Dnevniki i pisma, 1941–1945, Moscow, 2005, p. 32

p.237 ‘After Minsk began to burn’: Vasily Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/43

p.238 ‘Before the corpses’: RGVA 32904/1/81, p. 28, quoted Anna Reid,

Leningrad: The Epic Siege of World War II, 1941–1944, New York, 2011, p. 43

p.239 ‘inadequate on the eve of war’: TsAMO 35/107559/5 p.364 ‘only 3,800 were ready to fight’: ibid.

Evacuation of Lenin’s body: Ilya Zbarsky, Lenin’s Embalmers, London, 1998, pp. 118–21

‘probably no overstatement’: Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. iii:

Der Russlandfeldzug bis zum Marsch auf Stalingrad, p. 38 p.241 ‘There were about nine hundred’: Grossman papers, RGALI

1710/3/43

p.242 ‘At the outset of the war’: Halder, Kriegstagebuch, vol. iii, p. 506 p.243 ‘Whether they are riding somewhere’, ‘the much­battered enemy

continued his cowardly advance’: RGALI 1710/3/43 ‘At night, the sky’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/49

p.244 Soviet 34th Army collapse and self­inflicted wounds: RGASPI 558/11/49, p. 1, quoted Reid, Leningrad, pp. 65–6

Evacuation of Tallinn: David M. Glantz, The Battle for Lenin- grad, 1941–1944, Lawrence, Kan., 2002, p. 46

p.245 Refugees described by Vasily Chekrizov: Reid, Leningrad, p. 116 ‘Doesn’t it seem to you’: RGASPI 558/11/492, p. 27, quoted ibid., p. 106

p.246 ‘Make it clear to all troops’: RGASPI 83/1/18, p. 18 ‘A German aircraft appeared’: VCD, 21.8.41

‘My answer is’: 20.9.41, RGALI 1817/2/185

p.247 ‘Crowds of civilians are escaping’: Gefr. Hans B., 269.Inf.Div., BfZ­SS

‘Columns of thick smoke’: VCD, 4.9.41

13: Rassenkrieg

p.250 ‘One even sees’: O’Gefr. Hanns W., 387.Inf.Div., 31.5.42, BfZ­SS 45 842

Ukraine famine: see Snyder, Bloodlands, p. 53

p.251 ‘Everyone admires’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/49

‘grass like cattle’, ‘they fell on’: Sold. Josef Z., 3.Kp/Ldsschtz. Btl.619, 12.9.41, BfZ­SS 20 355 D

‘The Russians arrived’: Paul Roser testimony, IMT VI, p. 291, quoted Peter Padfield, Himmler, Reichsführer-SS, London, 2001, p. 431

p.252 Partisan preparations: 2.9.41, Bellamy, Absolute War, pp. 267–8 p.253 ‘time of iron’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/43

‘the Shoah by bullets’: Vasily Grossman, The Road, London, 2009, p. 60

‘Some Thoughts on the Treatment’: Christopher Browning, ‘Nazi Resettlement Policy and the Search for a Solution to the Jewish Question, 1939–1941’, in his The Path to Genocide: Essays on Launching the Final Solution, Cambridge, 1992, pp. 16–17, quoted Mark Mazower, Dark Continent: Europe’s Twentieth Century, London, 1998, p. 170.

p.254 Himmler and Madagascar: Christopher R. Browning, The Ori- gins of the Final Solution, London, 2004, pp. 81–9

‘territorial solution’: quoted Kershaw, The Nazi Dictatorship, p. 112

‘This will happen best’: quoted ibid., p. 266 p.255 For the SS Einsatzgruppen, see ibid., pp. 224–43

‘self­cleansing efforts’, or Selbstreinigungsbestrebungen: ibid., p. 228

p.256 ‘Jews in party and state’: ibid., p. 219

The ‘sardine method’: Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the Eu- ropean Jews, New York, 1985, p. 146

p.257 ‘A pilot from the third air squadron’: TsA FSB 14/4/326, pp. 264–7

‘men, women and children’: Gefr. Hans R., Interview ‘Die Deutschen im Zweiten Weltkrieg’, SWF TV, 1985, quoted Robert Kershaw, War without Garlands, London, 2009, pp. 285–6

‘A girl – a Jewish beauty’: RGALI 1710/3/49 p.258 ‘In my opinion’: TNA WO 208/4363

‘They’re willing and comradely’: Gefr. Ludwig B., Nachsch. Btl.563, 27.7.42, BfZ­SS 28 743

‘the soldiers were shouting’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/123 p.259 ‘People with fawning’: Ida S. Belozovskaya, GARF 8114/1/965,

pp. 68–75

p.260 Sixth Army and Babi­Yar: Hannes Heer (ed.), Vernichtungskrieg. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht 1941 bis 1944, Hamburg, 1996

‘On 28 September’: Ida S. Belozovskaya, GARF 8114/1/965, pp. 68–75

p.261 ‘deformed newborns’: Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution, Chapel Hill, 1995, p. 43. Friedlander is the main source for the section on the euthanasia programme

p.262 ‘Look at the eyes’: quoted Hilberg, The Destruction of the Euro- pean Jews, p. 137

14: The ‘Grand Alliance’

p.264 ‘I will unsay no word’, ‘if Hitler invaded Hell’: Winant and Churchill’s speech of 22.6.41, Valentin M. Berezhkov, History in the Making, Moscow, 1983, p. 123

‘it would be fatal’: TNA HW 1/6, C/6863, quoted David Stafford,

Roosevelt and Churchill, London, 2000, p. 65

p.266 ‘a gift for treating’: Kenneth S. Davis, FDR: The War President, New York, 2000, p. 212

p.267 ‘for much longer than’: Berezhkov, History in the Making, p. 126 p.269 ‘The country that could produce’: quoted ibid., p. 141

p.270 From 27 January to 20 August, fifty­two Axis ships sunk and thirty­eight damaged: GSWW, vol. iii, p. 712

‘German swimming­pool’: Wolf Heckmann, Rommel’s War in Africa, New York, 1981, p. 157

‘One has to treat the Italians’: Leutnant André F., 15.P.Div., 28.5.41, BfZ­SS 37 007

p.272 ‘a bare flat plain’: Geoffrey Cox, A Tale of Two Battles, London, 1987, p. 134

p.274 ‘the Führer is prepared practically’: BA­MA RM 7/29

p.276 ‘He clinked glasses with Sikorski’: Ilya Ehrenburg, Men, Years – Life, vol. v: The War: 1941–1945, New York, 1964, p. 19

15: The Battle for Moscow

p.277 ‘on the roof watching’: quoted Lourie, Sakharov, p. 53

p.278 ‘Most of the militia’: Yuri Vladimirov, Voina soldata-zenitchika, 1941–1942, Moscow, 2009, p. 118

‘I thought I’d seen retreat’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/49 p.279 German tanks chasing Red Army soldiers: Vladimir Voitse­

khovich in Artem Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina. Ya pomnyu, Moscow, 2010, p. 12

‘panic­monger’: John Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad, London, 1975, p. 217

p.280 ‘The Russians are beasts’: Maj. Hans Sch., Stab/Pi.Btl.652, BfZ­SS 33 691

‘Lots of mad rumours’: ibid.

p.281 ‘I don’t think anyone’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/49 ‘Tolstoy’s grave’: ibid.

p.283 ‘They used fear’: Vladimir Ogryzko, quoted Laurence Rees,

World War II behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West, London, 2009, p. 112

Execution of gang boss: Vladimir Voitsekhovich in Drabkin (ed.),

Svyashchennaya voina, p. 15

‘rubbish’: quoted Dmitri Volkogonov, Stalin: Triumph and Trag- edy, London, 1991, p. 422

p.285 ‘Bosses from many factories’: Yefim Abelevich Golbraikh in Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, p. 79

‘surrounded by mobs’: quoted Lowrie, Sakharov, p. 55 ‘human whirlpools’: ibid.

‘What went on at Kazan’: Ehrenburg, Men, Years – Life, vol. v, p. 17

p.286 ‘The German invaders’: Alexander Werth, Russia at War, London, 1964, p. 246

‘I have looked through the files’: ibid., p. 15

p.287 ‘destroy and burn to ashes’: quoted Volkogonov, Stalin: Triumph

and Tragedy, p. 456

‘Stations were covered’: Vladimirov, Voina soldata-zenitchika, p. 119

SS motorcyclist: Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 317

‘destroyer battalions’: Vladimir Viktorovich Voitsekhovich in Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, 2010

p.288 ‘the good old war­horse’: Richthofen KTB, 10.4.41, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 59

‘around half­naked when’: quoted Charles Messenger, The Last

Prussian: A Biography of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt,

1875–1953, London, 1991,p. 61

p.290 ‘dependant’s’ ration, ‘smertnik’: Reid, Leningrad, pp. 168–9 ‘Our situation with food’: VCD, 28.10.41

‘Our corporal Andronov’: ibid., 20.11.41 ‘I saw a Polutorka’: ibid., 8.12.41

‘all along the bank’: ibid., 8–9.12.41

p.292 ‘I cannot describe to you’: Gefr. Hans Joachim C., 6.Kp/Infantry. Rgt.67, 23.Inf.Div., 4.12.41, BfZ­SS

p.294 ‘I don’t know what’s wrong’: Obgefr. Herbert B., Nach­ schubkp.31, 6.12.41, BfZ­SS

‘Are we going to have to pull out?’: Oberschütze Helmut G., 8.12.41, BfZ­SS

‘The frosts were exceptionally severe’: Ehrenburg, Men, Years – Life, vol. v,p. 35

p.295 Many of the wounded’: Oberschütze Helmut G., BfZ­SS, N:Gil ‘There’s an enormous number’: Oberschütze Helmut G., BfZ­SS p.296 ‘the Americans in the Grand Hotel’: Ehrenburg, Men, Years –

Life, vol. v, p. 18

16: Pearl Harbor

p.297 ‘This means war’: Robert E. Sherwood, The White House Papers of Harry L. Hopkins, 2 vols, New York, 1948, vol. i, p. 430

‘I think they have had’: D. K. R. Crosswell, Beetle: The Life of General Walter Bedell Smith, Lexington, Ky, 2010, pp. 227–8 Roosevelt’s decision on atomic weapons research: Kershaw, Fate-

ful Choices, p. 7

p.298 ‘national hara­kiri’: Joseph C. Grew, Ten Years in Japan, New York, 1944, p. 468, quoted ibid., p. 366

‘In the first six to twelve months’: Arthur Zich, The Rising Sun, Alexandria. Va, 1977, p. 19

p.299 ‘third­class nation’: Nobutaka Ike (ed.), Japan’s Decision for War: Records of the 1941 Policy Conferences, Stanford, 1967, pp. 208– 39, quoted Kershaw, Fateful Choices, p. 365

p.300 ‘Do you mean to say’: Zich, The Rising Sun, p. 51

p.301 ‘A gorgeous formation’: Fuchida Mitsuo, ‘Pearl Harbor: The View from the Japanese Cockpit’, in Stanley M. Ulanoff (ed.), Bombs Away!, New York, 1971, quoted Lewis, Eyewitness World War II, pp. 260–1

p.303 MacArthur’s command in the Philippines: Philippine Islands, USACMH, Washington, DC, 1992, pp. 4–9

p.304 ‘Women clustered under’: Carlos P. Romula, USMC, quoted Lewis, Eyewitness World War II, p. 268

‘dollar arsenal of the Empire’: quoted Peter Thompson, The Battle for Singapore, London, 2005, p. 16

p.308 ‘Today all of us’: TNA PREM 3/469/13

‘Prince of Wales looked magnificent’: O. D. Gallagher, ‘The Loss of the Repulse and the Prince of Wales’, Daily Express, 12.12.41

p.311 ‘We’ll get it over by spring’: ibid., p. 35

p.312 ‘not the slightest chance’: quoted Philip Snow, The Fall of Hong

Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese Occupation, New Haven and London, 2003, p. 41

23rd Army’s invasion of Hong Kong: see ibid., pp. 53–7 p.314 ‘There must be no thought’: ibid., pp. 66–7

‘the first man to surrender’: ibid., p. 67

p.315 10,000 Hong Kong Chinese women raped: ibid., pp. 81–2; see also testimony of Connie Sully, in Rees, Their Darkest Hour, pp. 129–35

p.318 ‘We are paying very heavily now’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 12.2.42, p. 229

HMAS Sydney: I am grateful to Michael Montgomery, the son of the cruiser’s navigating officer, for updating me on the Court of Inquiry in 2008–9 headed by Justice Terence Cole

p.321 ‘astonished to find’: Theodore White (ed.), The Stilwell Papers, New York, 1948, p. 60

17: China and the Philippines

p.323 For the New Fourth Army incident, see Chang and Halliday, Mao, pp. 278–85

p.324 ‘the greatest shame’: quoted Kawano, ‘Japanese Combat Morale’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 331 Hemingway and Gellhorn in China, ‘China has cured me’ etc.: Caroline Moorehead, Martha Gellhorn: A Life, London, 2003, p. 213

Chinese Communist opium trade: A. S. Panyushkin, Zapiski Posla: Kitay 1939–1944, Moscow, 1981, p. 278, quoted Chang and Halliday, Mao, p. 3

p.325 ‘Three all’: Edward L. Dreyer, China at War, 1901–1949, London, 1995, p. 253

Fall in the population of Communist base areas: Chalmers A. Johnson, Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emer- gence of Revolutionary China, 1937–1945, Stanford, 1962, p. 58 ‘proletarian internationalism’: Garver, Chinese–Soviet Relations, p. 239

p.326 Soviet military advisers in China: ibid., p. 40; Zhang Baijia, ‘China’s Quest for Foreign Military Aid’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 288–93

For the Japanese strategic bombing offensive, see Edna Tow, ‘The Great Bombing of Chongqing and the Anti­Japanese War,

1937–1945’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 256–82

p.327 ‘A Red Cross ambulance’: Smedley, Battle Hymn of China, p. 158

‘The division’s situation was so desperate’: Tobe Ryo¨ichi, ‘The Japanese Eleventh Army in Central China, 1938–1941’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 227

p.328 ‘the sick man of Asia’: van de Ven, War and Nationalism in China, p. 13

For the Nationalists’ problems in recruiting and feeding their forces and population, see ibid., pp. 253–83

The food crisis in Nationalist China: Collingham, The Taste of War, pp. 250–5

p.329 ‘offensive spirit’: van de Ven, War and Nationalism in China, p. 10

p.331 Plan ‘Orange’: Philippine Islands, USACMH, 1992

p.332 ‘Battling Bastards of Bataan’: Philippine Islands, USACMH, 1992

18: War across the World

p.335 ‘Roosevelt is a fanatic’: quoted Berezhkov, History in the Making, pp. 159–60

‘like a bolt from the blue’: TBJG, part II, vol. ii, p. 453

p.336 ‘A great power doesn’t let itself’: Ernst von Weizsäcker, Er- innerungen, Munich, 1950, p. 280, quoted Kershaw, Fateful Choices, p. 422

‘On the 11 December’: Gefr. Bisch, 2.Kp./Pz.Rgt.3, 2.Pz.Div., 21.12.41, BfZ­SS

p.337 Dönitz and Hitler: Kershaw, Fateful Choices, p. 384

‘went to bed’: Lady Soames interview, Brendon papers, quoted Carlo D’Este, Warlord: A Life of Churchill at War, 1874–1945, London, 2008, p. 622

p.338 Churchill and Arcadia: Hastings, Finest Years, pp. 217–39 ‘United States policy’: Anthony Eden, The Eden Memoirs: The Reckoning, London, 1965, p. 319

p.339 ‘The American Army does not’: quoted John Ellis, Brute Force:

Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War, New York, 1990, p. 525

‘every promise the English’: Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945, New York, 1979, p. 338

‘I know you will not mind’: Warren F. Kimball (ed.), Churchill and Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence, 3 vols, Princeton, 1984, vol. i: Alliance Emerging, p. 421

p.341 ‘Carry out your orders!’: Georgii Zhukov, Vospominaniya i Raz- myshleniya, 2 vols, Moscow, 2002, vol. ii, p. 51

p.343 ‘In order to beat a path’: P. Gerasimov, VIZh, no. 7, 1967, quoted Rodric Braithwaite, Moscow 1941: A City and its People at War, London, 2007, pp. 327–8

‘How did we miss him’: Volkogonov, Stalin: Triumph and Trag- edy, pp. 443–4

p.345 ‘a beautiful girl’: Leonid Rabichev, Voina vsyo spishet, vospom- inaniya ofitsera-svyazista, 31-i armii, 1941–1945, Moscow, 2009, p. 75

Nearly 1,400 arrested: M. Gorinov (ed.), Moskva Prifrontovaya,

1941–1942: Arkhivnye Dokumenty i Materialy, Moscow, 2001, p. 415, quoted Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 323

Soviet losses in the January–April 1942 offensives: Krivosheev,

Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses, pp. 122–3

p.346 Moscow in the early months of 1942: Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, pp. 333–9

Construction of the corduroy road: Bellamy, Absolute War, pp. 366–70

p.347 ‘irresponsible and heartless treatment’: quoted Reid, Leningrad, p. 278

p.348 ‘They hardly looked like’: Alexander Werth, Leningrad, London, 1944, p. 89

‘You don’t know what it was like’: quoted ibid., p. 22 Conditions in Leningrad: Bellamy, Absolute War, pp. 377–84; Reid, Leningrad; Werth, Leningrad; David Glantz, The Siege of Leningrad, 1941–1944, London, 2004

‘People turn into animals’: Yelena Skrjabina, Siege and Survival: The Odyssey of a Leningrader, Carbondale, Ill., 1971, p. 28

p.349 Arrests for cannibalism: Bellamy, Absolute War, pp. 379–80; A. R. Dzheniskevich, ‘Banditizm (osobaya kategoriya) v blokirovan­ nom Leningrade’, Istoriya Peterburga, no. 1, 2001, pp. 47–51 56th Division in 55th Army: Vasily Yershov, untitled typescript, Bakhmeteff Archive, Columbia University, quoted Reid, Lenin- grad, p. 320

p.350 ‘Daddy, kill a German!’: quoted Werth, Leningrad, p. 97 ‘once again we are’: Sold. K.B., 23.1.42, BfZ­SS

p.351 ‘the small Afrika Korps’: Hans­Hermann H., 13.3.42, BfZ­SS N91.2

19: Wannsee and the SS Archipelago

p.352 ‘undertake, by emigration or evacuation’: Hilberg, The Destruc- tion of the European Jews, p. 163; ‘the physical annihilation’: ibid., p. 163

p.353 ‘the instigators of this’: TBJG, part II, vol. ii, pp. 498–9, quoted Kershaw, The Nazi Dictatorship, p. 124

‘The Führer is determined’: TBJG, part II, vol. ii, 13.12.41, pp. 498–9

p.354 Martin Luther: see Echart Conze, Norbert Frei, Peter Hayes and Moshe Zimmermann, Das Amt und die Vergangenheit. Deutsche

Diplomaten im Dritten Reich und in der Bundesrepublik, Munich, 2010; for the original Martin Luther and the Jews, see Hilberg,

The Destruction of the European Jews, pp. 13–15

p.355 ‘like miscarriages of hell’: Hilberg, The Destruction of the Euro- pean Jews, p. 270

‘the killers in the occupied USSR’: ibid., p. 99

p.357 On Henry Ford and the Nazis, see Charles Patterson, Eternal Tre- blinka, New York, 2002, pp. 71–9; for Ford’s inspiration from slaughterhouses, see Henry Ford, My Life and Work, New York, 1922, p. 81; David L. Lewis, The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and his Company, Detroit, 1976, p. 135; Albert Lee, Henry Ford and the Jews, New York, 1980

‘an unwritten and never to be written’: IMT 29:145

p.358 ‘the road to Auschwitz’: Ian Kershaw, Popular Opinion and Po- litical Dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria, 1933–1945, New York, 1983, p. 277

Medical experiments in Dachau, and ‘for use as saddles’: Franz Blaha, ‘Holocaust: Medical experiments at Dachau’, IMT; NA II RG 238, Box 16

Danzig Anatomical Medical Institute: GARF 9401/2/96. Spanner was never prosecuted because there was no law against experi­ ments on corpses

‘It is the writer’s duty’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/123 p.359 ‘In Bereza­Kartuska’: Zahlm.d.R. Heinrich K., H.K.P. 610 Brest/

Bug, 18.7.42, BfZ­SS 37 634

‘Jewish girls who wanted’: Hilberg, The Destruction of the Euro- pean Jews, p. 145

p.360 Warsaw ghetto uprising: see ibid., pp. 204–11

p.361 ‘The uproar was monstrous’: quoted Padfield, Himmler, p. 449 ‘Waves of stone’: RGALI, 1710/3/21

20: Japanese Occupation and the Battle of Midway

p.362 Occupation of Hong Kong: Snow, The Fall of Hong Kong, pp. 77–148

p.363 For the Japanese occupation of Shanghai, see Bernard Wasser­ stein, Secret War in Shanghai, London, 1998, pp. 216–39

$50 million ‘gift of atonement’: Peter Thompson, The Battle for Singapore, London, 2005, p. 380

p.364 ‘quota of twenty enlisted men’: Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, p. 93 p.365 Five million deaths in south­east Asia: Max Hastings, Nemesis:

The Battle for Japan 1944–1945, London, 2007, p. 13

p.366 Indochina: Ralph B. Smith, ‘The Japanese Period in Indochina and the Coup of 9 March 1945’, Journal of Southeast Asian Stud- ies, vol. 9, no. 2, September 1978, pp. 268–301

p.367 Massacre at Batanga: Ronald H. Spector, Eagle against the Sun: The American War with Japan, London, 2001, p. 397

The United States, Nationalist China and the British Empire: see Snow, The Fall of Hong Kong, pp. 142–8

p.368 ‘The British Grenadiers’ and ‘The Eton Boating Song’: ibid., p. 185

p.369 ‘insane provincial protectionism’: Justice H. L. Braund, regional food controller for the Eastern Areas, quoted Lizzie Collingham, The Taste of War, p. 143; Bengal famine, ibid., pp. 141–54

p.371 US submarines accounting for 55 per cent of all craft sunk: World War II Quarterly, 5.2, p. 64

p.372 ‘beating’: Admiral Nagumo Chuichi, quoted Office of Naval In­ telligence, June 1947, NHHC, OPNAV P32­1002

p.373 ‘not aware of our plans’: ibid.

p.374 ‘Service crews cheered’: Fuchida Mitsuo, ‘Pearl Harbor: The View from the Japanese Cockpit’, in Ulanoff (ed.), Bombs Away!, p. 305

For the question of rearming Japanese torpedo bombers, see Jef­ frey G. Barlow in World War II Quarterly, 5.1, pp. 66–9; Dallas Woodbury Isom, Midway Inquest: Why the Japanese Lost the Battle of Midway, Bloomington, Ind., 2007, p. 269; Jonathan Parshall and Anthony Tully, Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway, Dulles, Va, 2005, p. 171; and John B.

Lundstrom, Black Shoe Carrier Admiral: Frank Jack Fletcher at Coral Sea, Midway and Guadalcanal, Annapolis, 2006, pp. 254–5 p.375 ‘As soon as the fires’: Admiral Nagumo, quoted Office of Naval

Intelligence, June 1947, NHHC, OPNAV P32­1002 ‘At 23.50’: ibid.

p.376 ‘Had we lacked early information’: Commander­in­Chief Pacific Fleet to Commander­in­Chief Fleet, 28.6.42, NHHC, Battle of Midway: 4–7 June 1942 Action Reports, F­2042

21: Defeat in the Desert

p.378 ‘The fighting has none’: Uffz. Hans­Hermann H., 8.4.42, BfZ­SS N91.2

p.379 ‘a whole bloody German’: quoted James Holland, Together We

Stand: North Africa, 1942–1943 – Turning the Tide in the West, London, 2005, p. 80

Defence of Bir Hakeim: Kitchen, Rommel’s Desert War, pp. 225–6 p.380 ‘For the first time since’: de Gaulle, Mémoires de guerre, vol. i,

p. 323

p.381 ‘very unpleasant situation’: Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, p. 311 p.382 ‘Oh, the heart beating with emotion’: de Gaulle, Mémoires de

guerre, vol. i, p. 325

p.383 ‘We’ve got chocolate’: Uffz. Hans­Hermann H., 30.6.42, BFZ­SS N91.2

p.384 ‘Defeat is one thing’: Churchill, The Second World War, vol. iv:

The Hinge of Fate, p. 344

p.387 Cairo and Alexandria during the ‘flap’: Cooper, Cairo in the War, pp. 190–201

p.388 Groupe de Chasse Alsace: Global War Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, 2010, p. 79

p.389 ‘when he made it home’: Victor Gregg, Rifleman: A Front Line Life, London, 2011, p. 127

p.390 ‘not affect the world situation’: quoted Roberts, Masters and Commanders, p. 233

22: Operation Blau – Barbarossa Relaunched

p.395 ‘Now that it’s fairly warm’: Sold. Fritz S., 1.5.42, 25.Inf.Div. (mot.), BfZ­SS 26 312

‘around eighty German soldiers’: Sold. Ferdinand S., 88.Inf.Div., BfZ­SS 05831 E

Grossdeutschland and SS divisions: David M. Glantz and Jona­ than House, When Titans Clashed, Lawrence, Kan., 1995, p. 105 ‘the great alarm’: captured diary, TsAFSB 14/4/328, pp. 367–71

p.396 ‘You are under military law’: order of 31.1.42, TsAMO 206/294/48, p. 346

‘endless uncultivated fields’: captured diary, TsAFSB 14/4/328, pp. 367–71

Mekhlis: Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, p. 365 p.397 ‘They have been hurriedly’: TsAFSB 14/4/328, pp. 367–71 p.398 ‘It was terrible’: Vladimirov, Voina soldata-zenitchika, p. 234

‘We advanced from Volchansk’: Yevgeny Fyodorovich Okishev in Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, p. 210

‘Military orders must be obeyed’, Stalin, Timoshenko and Khrushchev: Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, pp. 366–7

p.399 ‘Our pilots work’: Sold. Heinrich R., 20.5.42, 389.Inf.Div., BfZ­SS 43 260

‘Tanks! Tanks coming!’, ‘It looked like a magical’: Vladimirov,

Voina soldata-zenitchika, p. 300

p.401 ‘We are really going’: O’Gefr. Karl H., Aufkl.Stffl.4 (F) 122, 7.6.42, BfZ­SS L 28 420

p.402 ‘I can only say’: O’Gefr. Kurt P., Radf.Rgt.4, 15.6.42, BfZ­SS 29 962

‘The explosions blended’: Yu. S. Naumov, Trudnaya sudba zash- chitnikov Seva-stopolya (1941–1942), Nizhni Novgorod, 2009, p. 15

‘I lost many comrades at my side’: Uffz. Arnold N., 377.Inf.Div., 8.7.42, BfZ­SS 41 967

p.404 ‘at least have it within’: Weisung Nr. 41, quoted Below, Als Hit-

lers Adjutant, p. 309

‘As far as the eye can see’: Clemens Podewils, Don und Volga, Munich, 1952, p. 47

‘53 degrees in the sun’: Helmuth Groscurth, Tagebücher eines Abwehroffiziers, Stuttgart, 1970, p. 527

p.405 ‘For the local people’: O’Gefr. Fritz W., Ldsschutz.Btl.389, 9.7.42, BfZ­SS 05 951

‘If we don’t take’: Friedrich Paulus, Ich stehe hier auf Befehl, Frankfurt am Main, 1960, p. 157

‘Panic­mongers and cowards’: TsAMO 48/486/28, p. 8 p.406 30,000 Gulag prisoners: GARF 9401/1a/128, p. 121

‘Comrade commissar I’ve always been a good man’: Yefim Abe­ levich Golbraikh in Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, pp. 114–15

p.407 ‘Make use of us today!’: Podewils, Don und Volga, p. 107

‘In the late afternoon’: Richthofen KTB, 23.8.42, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 140

p.408 ‘We looked at the immense steppe’: conversation with General­ leutnant A.d. Bernd Freiherr Freytag von Loringhoven, 23.10.95 ‘intently at each soldier’: Berezhkov, History in the Making, p. 193

p.410 ‘He has got an unpleasantly’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 301 p.411 ‘Let’s open the Second Front’: Ehrenburg, Men, Years – Life, vol.

v, p. 78

Performance of Shostakovich’s Leningrad symphony: Bellamy,

Absolute War, pp. 389–90

p.412 ‘The air filled with’: Boris Antonov letter in ‘Ot party do obe­ liska’, Nasha voina, Moscow, 2005, p. 256

p.413 ‘that the Russians were finished’: Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, p. 313

Hitler and Italian ambassador: ADAP Series E, vol. iii, pp. 304–7, quoted Kitchen, Rommel’s Desert War, p. 286

‘Anyway, we will not be taking’: Sold. Heinrich R., 389.Inf.Div., 28.8.42, BfZ­SS 43 260

‘Hopefully the operation’: Gefr. Eduard R., 16.Pz.Div., 25.8.42, BfZ­SS 28 148

p.414 ‘very cool’: Richthofen KTB, 23.8.42, BA­MA N671/2/7/9, p. 140 ‘in chains’, ‘given land in Transylvania’: TsAMO FSB 14/4/326, pp. 269–70

Romanian pay and rations: TsA FSB 14/4/777, pp. 32–4

23: Fighting Back in the Pacific

p.416 ‘to let off steam’: 30.3.42, Ernest J. King Papers, quoted Spector,

Eagle against the Sun, p. 143

p.420 ‘The Fever was on us’: Robert Leckie, Helmet for my Pillow, London, 2010, p. 82

p.421 ‘Everyone looked the other way’: ibid., p. 89

p.423 Marines bartering: Spector, Eagle against the Sun, p. 205 p.424 ‘Take Buna today’, ‘striking victory’: quoted ibid., pp. 216–17

p.425 ‘steep little hills’: Lt Col. Frank Owen, quoted William Fowler,

We Gave our Today: Burma, 1941–1945, London, 2009, p. 82

p.426 ‘I can’t be rude’: quoted ibid., p. 85

p.427 ‘the rapid build­up’: memorandum for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, MP, II, pp. 475–6

‘accomplish the downfall of Japan’: quoted van de Ven, War and Nationalism in China, p. 36

24: Stalingrad

p.429

‘What’s the matter with them?’: quoted Volkogonov, Stalin: Tri-

umph and Tragedy, p. 461

‘This war on the border’: RGALI 1710/3/50

p.430

‘The Führer commands’: KTB OKW, vol. ii/I, p. 669

‘Please send me a present’: TsA FSB 114/4/326, pp. 167–8

‘too sad to watch the newsreels’: TsA FSB 14/4/943, pp. 38–9

‘That is a lie!’: Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1908

For the List–Jodl crisis at Führer headquarters, see also Kershaw,

Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, pp. 532–3

‘long stare of burning hate’: Walter Warlimont, Im Hauptquar-

tier der deutschen Wehrmacht, 1939–1945, Frankfurt am Main,

1962, p. 269

p.431

‘a confrontation between two rams’: Sergo Beria, Beria, my

Father: Inside Stalin’s Kremlin, London, 2001, p. 85

‘Comrade Chuikov’: Vasily Chuikov, The Beginning of the Road:

The Battle for Stalingrad, London, 1963, p. 84; ‘Time is blood’:

ibid., p. 89

p.432

‘Nobody believes that Stalingrad’: diary of assistant politi­

cal officer Sokolov, 92nd Reserve Regiment, 11.9.42, TsA FSB

40/31/577, p. 42

‘A mass of Stukas’: Gefreiter, 389.Inf.Div., BfZ­SS

p.433

‘the blocking unit of the 62nd Army’: Selivanovsky, chief of Spe­

cial Department Stalingrad Front, TsA FSB 14/4/326, pp. 220–3

‘Stalingrad looks like’: Anurin diary, 7.9.42 (private collection,

Moscow)

p.434

‘From the very first days’: 1.4.43, TsA FSB 3/10/136, pp. 45–73

‘nine grams’: TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 162

‘the defeatist mood’: Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 8.10.42, TsAMO

48/486/24, p. 74

‘is exploited by German agents’: ibid., p. 77

p.435

‘It is hard for them’: Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 11.11.42, TsAMO

48/486/25, pp. 138–9

‘When we were moved’: Amza Amzaevich Mamutov, http:// www.iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/mamutov­amza­amzaevich/ stranitsa­3.html

‘What if your beloved girl’: Stalinskoe Znamya, 8.9.42, TsAMO 230/586/1, p. 79

‘For the defenders of Stalingrad’: Koshcheev to Shcherbakov, 17.11.42, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 216

p.436 ‘Since yesterday’: anon., 29.Inf.Div.(mot.), 15.9.1942, BfZ­SS ‘Our pilots feel that’: Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 4.10.42, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 48

‘A sub­machine gun is’: Amza Amzaevich Mamutov, http:// www.iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/mamutov­amza­amzaevich/ stranitsa­3.html

p.437 ‘The ammunition brought over during the night’: Belousov, Spe­ cial Detachment Stalingrad Front, 21.9.42, TsA FSB 14/4/326, pp. 229–30

‘a full set of limbs’: Ilya Shatunovsky, ‘I ostanetsya dobryi sled’, in Vsem smertyam nazlo, Moscow, 2000

‘Germans are fighting without counting ammunition’: Second Special Dept NKVD to Beria and Abakumov, 4.9.42, TsA FSB 14/4/913, pp. 27–31

‘You can’t imagine’: TsA FSB 41/51/814, p. 7

p.439 ‘the morning rise’ etc.: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/50 ‘The soldier who was carrying’: Uffz. Alois Heimesser, 297th In­ fantry Division, 14.11.42, TsA FSB 40/22/11, pp. 62–5

‘A report had to be sent in’: Vladimir Vladimirovich Gormin,

Novgorodskaya Pravda, 21.4.95

Tobacco hunger and the vodka ration: ibid. p.440 ‘If they don’t’: 4.11.42, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 47

‘the introduction of a unified command’: TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 176–7

‘absolutely incorrect attitude’, ‘political department is’: Kosh­ cheev to Shcherbakov, 14.11.42, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 179 Stalingrad Front interrogations: TsAMO 62/335/7, 48/453/13, 206/294/12, 206/294/47, 206/294/48, 226/335/7

‘On some parts of the front’: Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 8.10.42, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 81

p.441 ‘Russians in the German army’: interrogation, 4.3.43, TsAMO 226/335/7, p. 364

Events in Sinkiang province: Garver, Chinese–Soviet Relations, pp. 169–77

‘A furious artillery bombardment’: Vladimir Vladimirovich Gormin, Novgorodskaya Pravda, 21.4.95

p.442 ‘real mass heroism’: TsAMO, 48/486/24, p. 200

‘In the last two days’: Koshcheev to Shcherbakov, 6.11.42, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 69

‘I often think of the words’: TsAFSB 40/22/12, pp. 96–100

‘It’s impossible to describe’: Gefr. Gelman, quoted in Volgograd University project, AMPSB

‘the dogs fight like lions’: Gefr. H.S., 389.Inf.Div., 5.11.42, BfZ­SS ‘the sooner I am’: quoted Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/100

p.443 ‘Time is of no importance’: Domarus, vol. ii, pp. 1937–8 ‘The ice floes collide’: Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p.444 ‘If the Katyusha sings’: TsA FSB 14/4/326, p. 307

‘shift the strategic situation’: Zhukov, Kakim my yego pomnim, p. 140

p.445 ‘sold their Motherland’: TsAMO 48/453/13, p. 4

‘enough to buy one litre of milk’: interrogation Romanian cavalry lieutenant, 26.9.42, TsAMO 206/294/47, p. 561

‘very rude to soldiers’, ‘a sin against’, ‘low political moral state’: TsAMO 48/453/13, pp. 4–7

‘raping all the women’: TsA FSB 14/4/326, pp. 264–7

‘moved from the central part’: Professor O. A. Rzheshevsky at the Stalingrad Seminar, London, 9.5.2000

Zhukov’s movements in the autumn of 1942: S. I. Isaev, ‘Vekhi frontovogo puti’, VIZh, no. 10, Oct. 1991, pp. 22–5

David Glantz on Operation Mars: see his General Zhukov’s

Greatest Defeat: The Red Army’s Epic Disaster in Operation Mars, 1942, London, 2000

p.446 ‘2.5 to 4.5 ammunition loads. . .’, Gen of the Army M.A. Gareev, session of the National Committee of Russian Historians on 28.12.99. I am grateful to Professor Oleg Rzheshevsky, the President of the Russian Association of the Second World War Historians for sending me their Information Bulletin No.5, 2000, with the verbatim record of the meeting.

‘The offensive predicted by Max’: Pavel Sudoplatov, Special

Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness – A Soviet Spymas- ter, London, 1994, p. 159

p.447 ‘One part of a small wood’: Ehrenburg, Men, Years – Life, vol. v, pp. 80–1

Soviet casualties in Operation Mars: see Glantz, Zhukov’s Great- est Defeat, pp. 304, 318–19 and 379

p.449 ‘as if it were 1870’: BA­MA RW4/v.264, p. 157

‘I’m not leaving’: Koshcheev to Shcherbakov, 21.11.42, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 264

p.450 ‘Sixth Army stand firm’: BA­MA RH 20­6/241

‘I don’t know how it is all’: letter 21.9.42, TsA FSB 40/22/142, p. 152

25: Alamein and Torch

p.451 ‘that German transports’: Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, p. 322 p.452 ‘Americans can only make’: quoted Kitchen, Rommel’s Desert

War, p. 316

p.456 ‘In the position in which’: BA­MA RH/19/VIII/34a

p.457 Hitler’s journey to Munich: Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Neme- sis, p. 539

p.458 ‘standing at a turning point’: TBJG, part II, vol. vi, p. 259

For the Madagascar campaign, see Smith, England’s Last War against France, pp. 281–355

p.462 ‘This admiral knows how to swim’: Édouard Herriot, Épisodes, 1940–1944, Paris, 1950, p. 75

p.463 ‘I hope the Vichy people’: quoted Jean Lacouture, De Gaulle: The Rebel, 1890–1944, New York, 1990, p. 397

p.464 ‘Jee­sus Christ!’: quoted Rick Atkinson, An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942–1943, New York, 2003, p. 123

p.465 ‘How Green is our Ally’: Guy Liddell diary, 6.1.43, TNA KV 4/191

‘Bring on the panzers!’: Atkinson, An Army at Dawn, p. 160

26: Southern Russia and Tunisia

p.466 ‘temporary encirclement’ : BA­MA RH 20­6/241 ‘a bull­necked’: GBP

‘that would be a Napoleonic ending’: BA­MA N601/v.4, p. 3 p.467 ‘whatever the circumstances’: Manfred Kehrig, Stalingrad: Ana-

lyse und Dokumentation einer Schlacht, Stuttgart, 1974, p. 562 For a discussion on the numbers surrounded and their different sources, see Antony Beevor, Stalingrad, London, 1998, pp. 439– 40; Rüdiger Overmans, ‘Das andere Gesicht des Krieges. Leben und Sterben der 6. Armee’, in Jürgen Förster (ed.), Stalingrad: Ereignis, Wirkung, Symbol, Munich, 1992, p. 442; BA­MA RH20­ 6/239, p. 226; Peter Hild, ‘Partnergruppe zur Aufklärung von

Vermisstenschicksalen deutscher und russischer Soldaten des 2. Weltkrieges’, in A. E. Epifanov (ed.), Die Tragödie der deutschen Kriegsgefangenen in Stalingrad, Osnabrück, 1996, p. 29

‘it’s useless to feed’: 12.12.42, TsA FSB 40/22/11, pp. 77–80 p.468 ‘Even death is preferable’: NKVD Don Front interrogation,

12.12.42, Sold. Karl Wilniker, 376th Infantry Division, TsA FSB 14/5/173, p. 223

‘The worst is past’: Sold. K.P., 14.12.42, BfZ­SS

p.471 ‘We’ll never see’: Divisionspfarrer Dr Hans Mühle, 305th Infante­ rie Division, 18.1.1943, BA­MA N241/42

‘We have got to believe’: H. Paschke; ‘If we lose the war’: Hugo Miller, both 25.1.43, GBP

p.474 ‘morbid sense of honor’: quoted Atkinson, An Army at Dawn, p. 197

p.475 SOE involvement in Darlan’s assassination and OSS reactions: based on conversations with the late Sir Douglas Dodds­Parker, Sir Brookes Richards, Evangeline Bruce and Lloyd Cutler ‘son­of­a­bitch’: conversation with Susan­Mary Alsop

p.476 ‘in the German way’: BA­MA N395/12

p.477 ‘The German soldier suffers’: Divisionspfarrer Dr Hans Mühle, 305th Infanterie Division, 18.1.1943, BA­MA N241/42

‘I and the whole German Wehrmacht’: BA­MA RH20­6/236 ‘It’s twenty days since we were encircled’: TsA FSB 40/28/38, pp. 69–72

p.478 ‘On the first day of the holidays’: TsA FSB 40/28/38, pp. 52–3 ‘crushing the wounded’: Divisionspfarrer Dr Hans Mühle, 305th Infanterie Division, 18.1.1943, BA­MA N241/42

p.479 ‘When liberating the’: TsA FSB 14/4/1330, p. 17

‘from the beginning of December 1942’: Abakumov to Vishin­ sky on atrocities by German soldiers to Soviet prisoners of war, 2.9.43, TsA FSB 14/5/1, pp. 228–35

Soviet prisoners dying at Gumrak when given food: Yevgeny Fyodorovich Okishev in Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, p. 222

‘Surrender out of the question’: BA­MA RH19VI/12, p. 324 p.480 ‘like wild animals’: BA­MA RW4/v.264

‘Paulus was completely unnerved’: Zakhary Rayzman, personal account. I am grateful to his grandson, Val Rayzman, for passing it to me

p.481 ‘great agitation caused’, ‘so­called factual’: BA­MA RL 5/793 ‘days of apolitical soldiering’: GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 589

‘Total War – Short War!’, ‘Do you want Total War?’: Deutsche Wochenshau, Feb. 1943. Goebbels’s Totaler Krieg speech: Ursula von Kardorff, Berliner Aufzeichnungen, 1942 bis 1945, Munich, 1997, pp. 67–8

27: Casablanca, Kharkov and Tunis

p.483 ‘other buggers to’: Keith Douglas, Alamein to Zem-Zem, London, 1992, p. 73

‘We had all seen the enemy’: ibid., p. 80

p.485 ‘we came, we listened’: quoted Atkinson, An Army at Dawn, p. 289

‘nothing but a clerk’: diary, 16.1.43, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii: 1940–1945, Boston, 1974, p. 155

‘A dashing, courageous’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 361

p.486 ‘Ike is more British’: diary, 12.4.43, Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, p. 218

‘the Greek slaves’: Macmillan to Richard Crossman in Nigel Fisher, Harold Macmillan, New York, 1967, pp. 100–1

‘I am a cross between’: Eisenhower to Paul Hodgson, 4.12.42, EP 687, quoted Crosswell, Beetle, p. 360

p.488 ‘under a transparent crust of ice’: Irina Dunaevskaya, 15–16.1.43, in Zvezda, no. 5, 2010, p. 64

‘Your prayers’: Dmitri Kabanov, Pamyat pisem ili chelovek iz tridzatchetverki, Moscow, 2006, p. 36

p.489 ‘a two­storey barrack’: VCD, 22.2.43

Blue Division: Payne, Franco and Hitler, pp. 146–54; X. Moreno

Juliá, La División Azul: Sangre española en Rusia, 1941–1945, Barcelona, 2004; Jorge M. Reverte, La División Azul: Rusia 1941–1944, Barcelona, 2011

p.490 ‘Can this possibly be’: Nikolai Ayrkhayev, Far Eastern Affairs, no. 4, 1990, p. 124

p.491 ‘For the last week and a half’: Ivan Ivanovich Korolkov, 10.2.43, in Pisma s ognennogo rubezha (1941–1945), St Petersburg, 1992, pp. 30–4

p.492 ‘When his victims’: Guy Sajer, The Forgotten Soldier, London, 1993, p. 149

p.493 Relative strengths on the eastern front: Glantz and House, When

Titans Clashed, p. 151

Women in the Red Army and at Stalingrad: see Reina Penning­ ton, ‘Women and the Battle of Stalingrad’, in Ljubica Erickson

and Mark Erickson (eds), Russia: War, Peace and Diplomacy, London, 2005

‘These girls evoked memories’: Ehrenburg, Men, Years – Life, vol. v, pp. 81–2

‘Many were sent back to the rear’: Yevgeny Fyodorovich Okishev in Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, p. 172

p.494 ‘great sin’, ‘Yet all around’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/50 ‘It’s unbelievable what’: Gefr. Karl B., 28.12.42, 334.Inf.Div., BfZ­SS 48 037A

p.496 ‘You will have heard’: Gefr. Siegfried K., 15.Pz.Div., 16.2.43, BfZ­SS 09 348

‘It was the first – and only’: quoted John Ellis, The Sharp End: The Fighting Man in World War II, London, 1993, p. 265

p.497 American losses: Atkinson, An Army at Dawn, p. 389

p.498 ‘Personally, I wish I could’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, p. 163

‘Patton’s Gestapo’: Atkinson, An Army at Dawn, p. 402

p.501 ‘Rifle butts appeared everywhere’: John Kenneally, The Honour and the Shame, London, 1991, pp. 83–5

28: Europe behind Barbed Wire

p.503 SS Galicia Division: Mark Mazower, Hitler’s Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe, London, 2008, p. 459

p.504 ‘Niggers’: quoted ibid., p. 152

p.505 ‘Greater German economic sphere’: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 322

p.506 ‘stand his booming voice’: quoted Terry Charman, ‘Hugh Dalton, Poland and SOE, 1940–42’, in Mark Seaman (ed.), Special Opera- tions Executive: A New Instrument of War, London, 2006, p. 62 ‘extraordinary fellow, Van!’: quoted J. G. Beevor, SOE: Recollec- tions and Reflections, 1940–1945, London, 1981, p. 64

p.508 ‘We soldiers are like gods’: Lt Peter G., 714.Inf.Div., 24.6.41, BfZ­SS 41 768 B

‘Balkan mentality’, Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, p. 339

p.510 ‘Belgrade was the only great city’: quoted ibid., p. 423 p.513 ‘tourist country’: GSWW, vol. ii, p. 323

Stunted growth of the young in France: Collingham, The Taste of War, p. 172

p.516 the great advantage of remaining above the fray: conversation with Sir Brookes Richards, 1993

p.517 ‘Personally, I think it is time’: Guy Liddell diary, 14.1.43, TNA KV 4/191

p.519 ‘nothing was more like Vichy than Algiers’: conversation with General Pierre de Bénouville, Jan. 1993

273 Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed: Thomas Polak, Stalin’s Falcons: The Aces of the Red Star, London, 1999, p. 355

p.520 ‘Heil Hess!’: Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, pp. 476–7

p.521 Englandspiel: for the best account, see M. R. D. Foot, SOE in the Low Countries, London, 2001

p.522 Danish food supplies for Germany: Collingham, The Taste of War, p. 175

p.524 Vemork Operation: Jens­Anton Poulsson, The Heavy Water Raid, Oslo, 2009

29: The Battle of the Atlantic and Strategic Bombing

p.528 ‘five divisions, twenty squadrons’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 285

p.530 ‘In which case’: John Colville, The Fringes of Power, p. 145 Butt Report: see SOAG, vol. iv, pp. 205–13

p.531 ‘air destruction was so exaggerated’: PP, folder 2c, quoted Tami Davis Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The Evolution

of British and American Ideas about Strategic Bombing, 1914– 1945, Princeton, 2002, p. 2

‘a pattern of exaggeration’: ibid., p. 69

‘to bomb them harder’: Trenchard, quoted ibid., p. 71

p.532 ‘revolting and un­English’: Admiralty memorandum of April 1932, quoted Uri Bialer, The Shadow of the Bomber, London, 1980, p. 24

‘baby­killing’: P. B. Joubert de la Ferté, ‘The Aim of the Royal Air Force’, May 1933, TNA AIR 2/675

‘intentional bombardment of’: TNA AIR 14/249

p.533 ‘take the gloves off’: quoted Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, p. 188

p.534 For the lives of bomber aircrew, see Patrick Bishop, Bomber Boys, London, 2008, and Daniel Swift, Bomber County, London, 2010

p.535 ‘had to hose it out’: quoted Swift, Bomber County, p. 56 ‘keyed up like a violin’: ibid., p. 70

‘a glorified bus driver’: Bishop, Bomber Boys, p. 48 ‘Now terror will be’: Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, p. 308

p.536 Churchill’s dinner at Chequers, and ‘England is the place’: Donald L. Miller, The Eighth Air Force: The American Bomber Crews in Britain, New York, 2006, pp. 58–9

p.537 ‘The worst thing is seeing’: quoted Swift, Bomber County, p. 95 ‘A shell bursting beneath you’: quoted Bishop, Bomber Boys, p. 103

p.538 Experience of US aircrew: see Miller, Eighth Air Force, pp. 89–136 p.542 ‘The Eighth Air Force’: Donald L. Miller, Eighth Air Force, p. 109 ‘primary objective will be’: Casablanca Directive, quoted Biddle,

Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, p. 215

p.545 For German accounts, see Jörg Echternkamp (ed.), Die Deutsche Kriegsgesellschaft, 1939 bis 1945, Munich 2004; Rosa Maria Ellscheid, Erinnerungen von 1896–1987, Cologne, 1988; Jörg Friedrich, Der Brand. Deutschland im Bombenkrieg, 1940–1945, Munich, 2002; Olaf Groehler, Bombenkrieg gegen Deutschland, Berlin, 1990; Hans­Willi Hermans, Köln im Bombenkrieg, 1942– 1945, Wartberg, 2004; Heinz Pettenberg, Starke Verbände im

Anflug auf Köln. Eine Kriegschronik in Tagebuchnotizen 1939– 1945, Cologne, 1981; Martin Rüther, Köln im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Alltag und Erfahrungen zwischen 1939 und 1945, Cologne, 2005; Martin Rüther, 31. Mai 1942. Der Tausend-Bomber-Angriff, Co­ logne, 1992; Dr P. Simon, Köln im Luftkrieg. Ein Tatsachenbericht über Fliegeralarme und Fliegerangriffe, Cologne, 1954; Anja vom Stein, Unser Köln. Erinnerungen 1910–1960. Erzählte Geschichte, Cologne, 1999

‘All the inhabitants’: Hermans, Köln im Bombenkrieg, p. 30 ‘With two other men’: Pettenberg, Starke Verbände im Anflug auf Köln, pp. 162–8

p.546 ‘Children were running’: Lina S. in Rüther, Köln im Zweiten Weltkrieg, p. 167

‘Everywhere you heard the screams’: ibid., p. 243

‘This could all’: Heinz Boberach (ed.), Meldungen aus dem Reich.

Die Geheimen Lageberichte des Sicherheitsdienstes der SS, 1938– 1945, Herrsching, 1984

p.547 Hamburg firestorm: Friedrich, Der Brand, pp. 112–18, 191–6; Bishop, Bomber Boys, pp. 125–9; Miller, Eighth Air Force, pp. 180–4; Keith Lowe, The Devastation of Hamburg, 1943, London, 2007

p.549 ‘It sounded like’: quoted Miller, Eighth Air Force, p. 198 ‘like a Parachute invasion’: ibid., p. 199

p.550 ‘The sky arches’: TBJG, part II, vol. x, 27.11.43, p. 136

p.551 ‘like a stage­set for’: Kardorff, Berliner Aufzeichnungen, p. 153 Battle of Berlin: Friedrich, Der Brand, pp. 119–21, 483–7; Bishop, Bomber Boys, pp. 206–14, 293–4; Moorhouse, Berlin at War, 318–35

p.552 ‘ashamed of area bombing’: Harris to Sir Arthur Street, under­ secretary of state at the air ministry, 25.10.43, TNA AIR 14/843, quoted Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, p. 22

p.553 ‘In periods of sustained’: Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air War- fare, p. 229

‘the Luftwaffe will go’: Swift, Bomber County, p. 143 ‘Jupiter complex’: quoted Friedrich, Der Brand, p. 101

30: The Pacific, China and Burma

p.557 ‘smelled like goats’: quoted Rafael Steinberg, Island Fighting, New York, 1978, p. 194

p.559 ‘Don’t squeeze that trigger’: Leckie, Helmet for my Pillow, p. 214 p.560 gyokusai ideology of ‘death before dishonour’: Kawano, ‘Japa­ nese Combat Morale’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle

for China, p. 328

p.562 White Russians in Shanghai: Wasserstein, Secret War in Shang- hai, p. 239

nothing more than ‘a hopeless crank’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 479

p.564 ‘You might as well eat’: ibid., 19.4.43, p. 394

31: The Battle of Kursk

p.566 For the best analysis of the Kursk operation, see David M. Glantz and Jonathan M. House, The Battle of Kursk, Lawrence, Kan., 1999; also Bellamy, Absolute War

‘Victory at Kursk’: quoted Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 577 ‘When I think of this attack’: General Heinz Guderian, Panzer Leader, New York, 1952, p. 247

p.567 ‘Each reconnaissance group’: Mikhail Petrovich Chebykin, http:// www.iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/chebikin­mikhail­petrovich/ German and Soviet strengths: Glantz and House, The Battle of Kursk, p. 65

p.569 Wittmann: Patrick Agte, Michael Wittmann and the Waffen SS

Tiger Commanders of the Leibstandarte in World War II, Me­ chanicsburg, Pa, 2006, vol. i, p. 60

Ultra and Luftwaffe airfields: Christopher Andrew and Vasiliy Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West, London, 2000, pp. 135, 156, 159

p.570 Sikorski aircrash: conversation with Victor Cazalet

p.571 ‘I believe that this’: Fhj.Uffz. Werner K., 2.Bttr./le.Flak­Abt.74, BfZ­SS L 20 909

‘a wonderful image for the newsreels’: Uffz. Herbert Peter S., 19.Pz.Div., 7.7.43, BfZ­SS 13 925

‘If something of the sort’: Sold. Karl K., 36.Inf.Div., 7.7.43, BfZ­SS 08 818C

p.572 ‘cannon­bird’: Agte, Michael Wittmann, p. 100

‘Our Luftwaffe is really fantastic’: H’Fw. Willy P., 167.Inf.Div., BfZ­SS 19 279 D

‘shells hit them’, ‘A gun­layer fired’: RGALI 1710/3/51

p.574 ‘My division is already’: Uffz. Ludwig D., Stabs­Bttr./Art. Rgt.103, 4.Pz.Div., 12.7.43, BfZ­SS 44 705

‘Ah, you bastards, you’re Vlasov men’: Reshat Zevadinovich Sa­ dredinov, 4th Battery of 1362nd Anti­Aircraft Artillery Regiment, 25th Anti­Aircraft Division, in Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, p. 137

‘The Luftwaffe was bombing’: RGALI 1710/3/51

‘This was face­to­face’, ‘The quieter it is’: RGALI 1710/3/51 p.576 ‘everything was on fire’, ‘A lieutenant, wounded’: RGALI

1710/3/51

p.577 Ninth Army losses: Glantz and House, The Battle of Kursk, p. 121

‘By midday’: Pavel Rotmistrov, ‘Tanks against Tanks’, in John Erickson (ed.), Main Front: Soviet Leaders Look Back on World War II, London, 1987, pp. 106–9

p.578 ‘With an unbroken Stuka­spirit’: Lt Paul D., III.Gru./St.G.2 ‘Im­ melmann’, 18.7.43, BfZ­SS L 16 641

p.579 ‘Those wearing camouflage’: Amza Amzaevich Mamutov, http:// www.iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/mamutov­amza­amzaevich/ stranitsa­3.html

p.580 ‘It’s now very hot’: San.Sold. Helmut P., 198.Inf.Div., 10.7.43, BfZ­SS 29 740

‘In five days’: Lt Paul D., III.Gru./St.G.2 ‘Immelmann’, 10.7.43, BfZ­SS L 16 641

‘The Russians are keeping’: O’Gefr. Robert B., 6.Pz.Div., 10.7.43, BfZ­SS 24 924

p.582 ‘What I saw left me’: quoted in Frank Kurowski, Panzer Aces, Winnipeg, 1992, p. 279

‘They were around us’: Rudolf Lehmann, The Leibstandarte, vol. iii, Winnipeg, 1993, p. 234, quoted Glantz and House, The Battle of Kursk, p. 185

‘The atmosphere was choking’: Anatoly Volkov, quoted Lloyd Clark, ‘The Battle of Kursk 1943’ in The Wishstream, 2010, p. 140 ‘Tanks even rammed one another’: Amza Amzaevich Mamutov, http://www.iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/mamutov­ amza­amzaevich/stranitsa­3.html

p.583 ‘Germans were crushed’: ibid.

p.584 ‘This war was never’: Lt Paul D., III.Gru./St.G.2 ‘Immelmann’, 18.7.43, BfZ­SS L 16 641

Operation Rumyantsev, ‘For the weary German infantry’: Glantz and House, The Battle of Kursk, pp. 246–7

p.585 ‘The smell of burning’: RGALI 1710/3/50

p.586 ‘The men are now fighting’: RGALI 1710/3/50

‘The 1943 warrior’: BA­MA RH 13/50, quoted GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 597

‘intellectual, introspective’: ibid., p. 598

32: From Sicily to Italy

p.588 ‘Their hearts are really in the Pacific’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 15.4.43, p. 393

p.590 ‘He would have to meet’: quoted Hastings, Finest Years, p. 375 ‘Allies must fight in separate’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, 28.4.43, p. 234

‘He is a little fellow’: ibid., p. 237

p.591 ‘indignant that Giraud’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 414

p.593 ‘hordes of tiny craft’: Jack Belden, Still Time to Die, New York, 1943, p. 269

p.595 ‘some menacing looking Arabs’: quoted Rick Atkinson, The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943–1944, New York, 2007, p. 40

‘God certainly’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, p. 280 p.596 ‘From the high ground’: Joe Kelley, SWWEC

p.598 ‘The people of this country’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, p. 291

p.599 ‘one could buy’: ibid., 20.7.43, p. 295

186 cases of VD: Jim Williams, SWWEC

‘the most disobeyed man’: quoted Denis Mack Smith, Mussolini, London, 1981, p. 327

p.602 ‘I guess I can’t take it’, etc., and ‘There’s no such thing’: Atkin­ son, The Day of Battle, pp. 147–8

p.603 ‘after the war’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, pp. 313–14

p.606 ‘The Führer is determined’: TBJG, part II, vol. ix, p. 460

p.608 HMS Warspite and HMS Petard: Reg Crang, SWWEC, Every- one’s War, no. 20, Winter 2009

‘You’re slipping Jimmy’, ‘Putting the city’: GBP, Dec. 1943 p.609 ‘a broken man’: Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, p. 347 (‘ein gebro­

chener Mann’)

‘We stood to at dawn’: Michael Howard, Captain Professor: A Life in War and Peace, London, 2006, p. 73

p.610 ‘That we will win’: Nachlass Jodl, 7.11.43, BA­MA N 69/17

33: Ukraine and the Teheran Conference

p.612 ‘There were cases’: RGALI 619/1/953

‘Children, sons’: Reshat Zevadinovich Sadredinov in Drabkin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, p. 196

‘We collected those’: Mikhail Petrovich Chebykin, http://www. iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/chebikin­mikhail­petrovich/

p.613 ‘Some peasant families’, ‘a little wizened’: GBP ‘Old men, when they’: RGALI 1710/1/100

p.614 ‘This was the murder’: RGALI 1710/1/101

p.615 ‘measures to shorten’: Moskovskaya Konferentsiya Ministrov Inostrannykh Del SSSR, SShA i Velikobritanii, Moscow, 1984, quoted Roberts, Stalin’s Wars, p. 177

‘little wooden box’ etc.: GBP

p.617 ‘The Generalissimo’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 23.11.43, p. 477 p.618 ‘I am speaking about this’: Berezhkov, At Stalin’s Side, p. 239

‘India is Churchill’s’: Berezhkov, History in the Making, p. 259 ‘must be punished’: quoted Roberts, Stalin’s Wars, p. 181

p.619 ‘Now the fate of Europe’: Beria, Beria, my Father, p. 92

‘a mission that is delicate and morally reprehensible’: ibid., p. 93 p.620 Roosevelt and Churchill on Poland: ibid., p. 94

‘won the game’: ibid., p. 95

‘Now he sees that he cannot’: Charles Moran, Winston Churchill: The Struggle for Survival, 1940–1945, London, 1966, 28 and 29 November 1943

p.621 ‘Well, Ike, you are’: Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, London, 1948, p. 227

Chiefs of staff and end of war: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 7.12.43, p. 492

p.622 ‘fighting in reverse gear’: 27.1.44, GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 614 ‘We are living in filth. It is hopeless’: Werth, Leningrad, p. 81

34: The Shoah by Gas

p.623 ‘insatiable ambition’: SS Brigadeführer Dr Werner Best, quoted Padfield, Himmler, p. 361

‘historic task’: Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, p. 415

p.625 ‘They had been given’: Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz, London, 2000, p. 121

‘They were no longer human beings’: ibid., p. 124

p.626 ‘going up the chimney’: Hermann Müller, quoted Diarmuid Jef­

freys, Hell’s Cartel: IG Farben and the Making of Hitler’s War Machine, New York, 2008, p. 322

‘People were deceived’: report by Shikin, deputy chief of the Main Political Department of the Red Army, 9.2.45, RGASPI 17/125/323, pp. 1–4

p.627 ‘It is not a Weltanschauungs­question’: 24.4.43, IMT 1919 PS ‘prototype serums and drugs’: Jeffreys, Hell’s Cartel, p. 327 ‘I have the opportunity’: ibid., p. 328

p.628 ‘a coarse, stupid’: Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz, p. 19, Primo Levi’s introduction

p.629 ‘I find it incredible’: ibid., p. 135

‘many of the women hid their babies’: ibid., p. 149 p.630 ‘They carried out all’: ibid., p. 152

p.631 ‘People were told that’: RGALI 1710/1/123

p.634 ‘the one­eyed German’: ibid.

p.635 ‘the earth is throwing out’: ibid.

p.636 ‘We faced the question’: quoted Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, p. 605

‘race struggle’: BA­B NS 19/4014, quoted GSWW, vol. ix/1, pp. 628–9

35: Italy – The Hard Underbelly

p.637 ‘Hang on we’re coming’: Nigel Hamilton, Monty: Master of the Battlefield, 1942–1944, London, 1985, p. 405

‘Marcus Aurelius Clarkus’: Atkinson, The Day of Battle, p. 237 ‘There was as yet’: Hamilton, Monty: Master of the Battlefield, p. 409

p.638 ‘an understanding husband’: Nigel Nicolson, Alex: The Life of Field Marshal Earl Alexander of Tunis, London, 1973, p. 163 ‘didn’t think Overlord’: Harry C. Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower, London, 1946, 23.11.43, p. 384

‘Rhodes madness’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 7.10.43, p. 458 ‘He has worked himself’: ibid., p. 459

p.639 ‘Just after [our] armoured cars’: Clarke, The Eleventh at War, p. 319

p.641 201st Guards Brigade on Monte Camino and 34th and 45th Divi­ sions: Atkinson, The Day of Battle, p. 260

p.642 ‘ordered ferocity’: GBP, Nov. 1943

p.643 ‘and the dog­fight’: Hamilton, Monty: Master of the Battlefield, p. 439

‘a slight little man’: GBP

p.644 ‘not a happy place’, ‘five cigarettes’: Kenneally, The Honour and

the Shame, p. 142

p.646 ‘Winston, sitting in Marrakesh,’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 6.1.44, p. 510

p.648 ‘I was amazed to see’: Kenneally, The Honour and the Shame, p. 152

‘Don’t stick your neck out’: quoted Atkinson, The Day of Battle, p. 355

The Pontine Marshes and malaria: Richard Evans, The Third Reich at War, pp. 477–8

p.649 ‘We all had a sickening’: Kenneally, The Honour and the Shame, p. 158

p.651 ‘A series of short sharp’: ibid., p. 165

p.652 ‘the Bowling Alley’: Atkinson, The Day of Battle, p. 426

‘We hoped to land a wildcat’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 29.2.44, p. 527

p.654 ‘Bootleggers from the 133rd Infantry’, and extra­curricular activ­ ities in the beachhead: Atkinson, The Day of Battle, pp. 488–9

p.656 ‘if the German’: TBJG, part II, vol. vii, 8.2.43, p. 296

36: The Soviet Spring Offensive

p.657 Meeting with Hitler: 4.1.44, Manstein, Lost Victories, pp. 500–5 p.658 German army losing the equivalent of a regiment per day:

GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 805

Wehrmacht strength in January 1944: ibid., p. 671

Red Army strength and weaknesses: Glantz and House, When Titans Clashed, pp. 179–81

‘wicked little eyes’: Beria, Beria, my Father, p. 130

p.659 Korsun­Cherkassy: see John Erickson, The Road to Berlin, London, 1983, pp. 177–9

‘Our car passed the body’: GBP, Dec. 1943 Leningrad–Novgorod operation: Bellamy, Absolute War, pp. 404–8

p.660 ‘The shells were throwing’: Pavel Zolotov, Zapiski minomyot- chika, 1942–1945, Moscow, 2009, p. 107

‘I realized that I’, ‘covered in shit’: ibid., pp. 112, 119 Gatchina palace as a brothel: Werth, Leningrad, p. 188

p.661 ‘caught four Russian teenage boys’: VCD, 8.2.44

German Ninth Army forcing civilians into no­man’s­land: GSWW, vol. ix/1, pp. 689–90

p.662 Seydlitz and General Melnikov: TsKhIDK 451p/3/7

37: The Pacific, China and Burma

p.667 ‘a disgraceful exhibition’: Eichelberger, quoted Ellis, The Sharp End, p. 19

p.669 ‘Long­Range Strategic Plan’: Hara Takeshi, ‘The Ichigo¯ Offen­ sive’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 393–4

Chiang Kai­shek and warning of Japanese offensive: van de Ven,

War and Nationalism in China, p. 46

‘an overland clearing operation’: ibid., p. 397

p.670 ‘trying to manure’: quoted Theodore H. White, In Search of His- tory, New York, 1978, p. 142

Chennault’s claims: Spector, Eagle against the Sun, p. 350

p.671 ‘very tedious’, ‘remained wet for weeks’, ‘There were four thou­ sand men’: Brigadier Bernard Fergusson, IMW 2586, quoted Julian Thompson, Forgotten Voices of Burma, London, 2009, p. 158

‘it was extraordinary’: Lt Richard Rhodes­James, 111th Brigade, IWM 19593

p.672 ‘a lethal dose’, ‘You could see people’: Maj. Desmond Whyte, RAMC, 111th Brigade, IWM 12570

p.673 ‘fighting the War of Independence all over again’: quoted Louis Allen, Burma: The Longest War, London, 1984, pp. 320–1

p.674 ‘They had renounced’: Maj. John Winstanley, B Company, 4th Battalion, Queen’s Own Royal West Kent Regiment, IWM 17955 ‘The sheer weight of the attacks’: Maj. Harry Smith, headquar­ ters company, 4th West Kents, IWM 19090

p.675 Japanese 56th Division on Salween: Asano Toyomi, ‘Japanese Operations in Yunnan and North Burma’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 365–6, 369–71

‘This will burn the Limeys’: Spector, Eagle against the Sun, p. 359 p.676 ‘By Christ, them little bastards’: Lt K. Cooper, quoted Ellis, The

Sharp End, p. 84

‘Both officers and men look’: quoted Fowler, We Gave our Today, p. 147

Combat fatigue in Imperial Japanese Army: Kawano, ‘Japanese Combat Morale’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 349

p.677 Air strengths in Ichigo¯ Offensive: Hagiwara, ‘Japanese Air Cam­ paigns in China’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, pp. 250–1

p.678 Chiang Kai­shek and Roosevelt: Dreyer, China at War, pp. 284–5 p.679 ‘Hsueh defended the city’: White and Jacoby, Thunder out of

China, p. 183

p.681 ‘a Hollywood premier’: Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United

States Naval Operations in World War II, vol. viii: New Guinea and the Marianas, Anna­polis, Md, 2011, p. 302

38: The Spring of Expectations

p.685 ‘very considerable investment’: Butcher, Three Years with Eisen- hower, 18.1.44, p. 403

‘Anvil [would] have to be sacrificed’: Bedell Smith to Eisenhower, 5.1.44, COSSAC File, W. Bedell Smith Papers, quoted Crosswell,

Beetle, p. 557

‘pitiless civil war’: quoted Lacouture, De Gaulle: The Rebel, p. 508

p.687 ‘The capture of Rome is the only important objective’: quoted Atkinson, The Day of Battle, p. 516

‘Most wore sandals’: ibid., p. 528

p.689 ‘it is astonishing’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 561 ‘inexplicable’: Field­Marshal Earl Alexander of Tunis, The Alex- ander Memoirs, 1940–1945, London, 1962, p. 127

p.692 ‘How do you like that?’: Vernon A. Walters, Silent Missions, New York, 1978, p. 97, quoted Atkinson, The Day of Battle, p. 575

‘just a bit of cheap bluff’: General der Infanterie Blumentritt, de­ briefing 6.8.45, NA II 407/427/24231

p.696 Dempsey on Eisenhower: conversation with Clive Duncan, to whom I am most grateful for this detail in a letter, 7.9.11

Three Skytrains shot down by Allied ships: Bill Goff, HMS Scylla, SWWEC, Everyone’s War, no. 20, Winter 2009

p.698 ‘the light would disappear’: Harley A. Reynolds, ‘The First Wave’, American Valor Quarterly, Spring/Summer 2009, pp. 15–22

‘the whole horizon’: FMS B­403

p.699 ‘Some boats were coming back’: Reynolds, ‘The First Wave’, American Valor Quarterly, Spring/Summer 2009, pp. 15–22

p.701 ‘Am very satisfied’: Hamilton, Monty: Master of the Battlefield, p. 621

39: Bagration and Normandy

p.707 ‘heat of high­summer days’: Lt Rudolf F., 6.Inf.Div., 23.6.44, BfZ­SS 27 662 A

p.710 ‘We really had a black day’: Uffz. Julfried K., Pz.Aufkl.Abt.125, 25.Pz.Gren.Div., 24.6.44, BfZ­SS 45 402

p.711 ‘the traffic controller’: Lt Degan, quoted Paul Adair, Hitler’s Greatest Defeat, London, 1994, p. 106

p.712 ‘The Ivans broke through’: Uffz. Alfons F., 206th Inf.Div., 28.6.44, BfZ­SS 56 601 C

‘When we entered Bobruisk’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/50 p.713 ‘Our people whom we’ve liberated’: letters from Vladimir Tsoglin to his mother, in I. Altman (ed.), Sokhrani moi pisma, Moscow,

2007, pp. 260–75

p.714 ‘The enemy has now done’: San.O’Gefr. Otto H., Herres­Betr. Kp. 6, 13.7.44, BfZ­SS 24 740

‘If the Russians keep up’: O’Gefr. Otto L., Fl.H.Kdtr.(E) 209/ XVII, 10.7.44, BfZ­SS L 55 922

‘A partisan, a small man’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/47 p.715 NKVD in Lwów: Rees, World War II behind Closed Doors, p. 274

‘Their effect should be’: O’Gefr. Otto L., Fl.H.Kdtr.(E) 209/XVII, 10.7.44, BfZ­SS L 55 922

‘The Russians are attacking constantly’: Gefr. Heinrich R., Bau­Pi.Btl.735, 26.7.44, BfZ­SS 03 707 D

‘one can no longer’: O’Gefr. Karl B., Rgts.Gru.332, 28.7.44, BA­MA H 34/1

‘columns of soldiers and refugees’: Erika S., Ragnit, 28.7.44, BA­MA H34/1

p.716 ‘It’s perfect logic’: P. I. Troyanovsky, Na vosmi frontakh, Moscow, 1982, p. 183

‘Stalin will avenge us!’: RGALI 1710/1/123

p.717 ‘NPT below rank major’: I am most grateful to Mr S. W. Kulh­ mann, for sending me a photocopy of his father’s field notebook, with this instruction, 5.2.11

‘no prisoners’, G. Steer, 1/4th KOYLI, SWWEC 2002.1644 ‘heavy losses’: 27.6.44, TNA KV 9826

‘had the unusual gift’: C. J. C. Molony, The Mediterranean and Middle East, London, 1984, vol. vi, part 1, p. 511, quoted Atkin­ son, The Day of Battle, p. 300

p.719 ‘Complete change so far as’: Myles Hildyard unpublished diary, 22.6.44 (private collection)

p.720 ‘You should make an end’: Blumentritt, ETHINT 73

p.721 ‘The Germans haven’t much left’: quoted Martin Blumenson,

The Duel for France 1944, New York, 2000, p. 23

‘a dirty bush war’: Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder

Weltanschauungskrieg? Kriegführung und Partisanenbekämp- fung in Frankreich 1943/44, Munich, 2007, p. 176 (‘schmutziger Buschkrieg’)

p.722 US Army psychiatric casualties in the Second World War: Albert J. Glass, ‘Lessons Learned’, in Albert J. Glass (ed.), Neuropsy- chiatry in World War II, Washington, DC, Office of the Surgeon General, 1973, vol. ii, pp. 1015–23

p.723 ‘heavy bombers cannot participate intimately’: Montgomery quoted GBP

p.724 ‘I am viewing the prospects’: 14.7.44, PDDE, p. 2004

40: Berlin, Warsaw and Paris

p.728 ‘changing horses’: GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 855

p.730 ‘not altogether displeased’: Smith, Mussolini, p. 358 p.731 ‘not to optimize’: GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 829

More than 5,000 suspected opponents: ibid., p. 912

‘The generals who carried out’: Gefr. Heinrich R., Bau­Pi.Btl.735, 5.7.44, BfZ­SS 03 707 D

‘Our lives are not worth’: ibid.

p.732 ‘With the German greeting’: Dr K., Feldlaz.8, 8.Jäg.Div., BA­MA RH 13 v.53

‘Certainly it looks bad’: Uffz. Werner F, 12.Pz.Div., 28.7.44, BfZ­SS 23 151 E

‘And soon they’ll be’: E.H., 26.7.44, BA­MA H 34/1

‘Dearest, do not be afraid’: O’Gefr M., Div.Vers.Rgt.195, 27.7.44, BA­MA H 34/1

p.733 ‘thirty thousand­odd’: quoted Roberts, Masters and Command- ers, p. 504

‘The effect of the major conflicts’: Keitel and Jodl, FMS A­915 p.734 ‘Psychologically I am finding’: Gefr. Karl B., schw.Art.Abt.460,

20.7.44, BfZ­SS 25 345 D

‘We’ve just received’: Lt Hans R., le.Flak­Abt.783(v.), 30.7.44, BfZ­SS L49 812

‘Round us no fewer’: O’Gefr. F.­H.B., 11.Inf.Div., 30.7.44, BfZ­SS 34 427

Red Army losses in Bagration: Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses, pp. 144–6

p.735 Wehrmacht losses: Rüdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkriege, Munich, 1999, pp. 238 and 279, quoted GSWW, vol. ix/1, pp. 66 and 805

‘The Poles are strange’: letters from Efraim Genkin to his family, 18.8.44, in Altman (ed.), Sokhrani moi pisma, Moscow, 2007, pp. 276–82

Conversation between Jan Stanisław Jankowski and Jan Nowak­Jezioran´ski: Władysław Bartoszewski, Abandoned Heroes of the Warsaw Uprising, Kraków, 2008, p. 17

‘the hour of action’: MPW

p.736 ‘If Stalin would use his own’: Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands, p. 298 Attack on Warsaw concentration camp: 5.8.44, Snyder, Blood- lands, p. 302

p.737 ‘One bullet – One German!’: Dorota Niemczyk (ed.), Brok Euge- niusz Lokajski, 1908–1944, Warsaw, 2007; and MPW

‘When he jumped down’: Bartoszewski, Abandoned Heroes of

the Warsaw Uprising, p. 50

p.739 Dirlewanger in Warsaw: Generaloberst Hans Friessner, Verra- tene Schlachten, Hamburg, 1956, p. 205

‘strategically useless’: Alexander, The Alexander Memoirs, p. 136 p.740 ‘There are no Germans’: quoted Maj. Gen. Kenner, chief medical

officer SHAEF, OCMH­FPP

p.741 ‘We must march on Paris’: interview with Gen. de Faulle, OCMH­FPP

p.743 ‘In fighting Warsaw’: Jan Lissowski, in Niemczyk (ed.), Brok Eu-

geniusz Lokajski

‘Let’s dance a mazurka again’: Roman Loth, in Niemczyk (ed.),

Brok Eugeniusz Lokajski

p.744 Bombing and IG Farben at Auschwitz III: see Jeffreys, Hell’s Cartel, pp. 288–9

p.745 ‘We await you red plague’: quoted Snyder, Bloodlands, p. 308

41: The Ichigo Offensive and Leyte

p.748 Japanese losses due to starvation: Akira Fujiwara, Uejini shita eireitachi, Tokyo, 2001, pp. 135–8, quoted Collingham, The Taste of War, pp. 10 and 303

‘white pigs’, ‘black pigs’: Ogawa Sho¯ji, Kyokugen no Naka no Ningen: Shi no Shima Nyu¯ginia, Tokyo, 1983, p. 167

‘it was not guerrillas’: Nogi Harumichi, Kaigun Tokubetsu Kei-

satsutai: Anbon Shima Bomber Command Kyu¯ Senpan no Shuki, Tokyo, 1975, p. 207, quoted Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, p. 114

p.750 ‘We got the order to retreat’: Al Ying Yunping, quoted Hastings,

Nemesis, p. 12

p.751 ‘One man in three’: White and Jacoby, Thunder out of China, p. 187

p.752 ‘rooting out traitors’: Yang Kuisong, ‘Nationalist and Commu­ nist Guerrilla Warfare’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The

Battle for China, p. 324

For repression, torture and the Maoist personality cult, see Chang and Halliday, Mao, pp. 288–305

p.753 For Stilwell and Hurley’s meeting with Chiang Kai­shek see Romanus and Sunderland, Stilwell’s Command Problems, pp. 379–84; Tuchman, Stilwell, pp. 493–4; Spector, Eagle against the Sun, pp. 368–9

‘acquiesce in an unenlightened’: quoted in Barbara W. Tuchman,

Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911–45, New York, 1971, p. 646

p.754 vilification of Chiang Kai­shek: van de Ven, War and Nationalism in China, p. 3; White and Jacoby, Thunder out of China, New York, 1946

‘A full and open explanation’: quoted van de Ven, War and Na-

tionalism in China, p. 60

p.755 Effects of Ichigo¯ Offensive: Asano Toyomi, ‘Japanese Operations in Yunnan and North Burma’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven,

The Battle for China, p. 361

p.758 ‘so many eggs’: Fukudome quoted Spector, Eagle against the Sun, p. 424

42: Unrealized Hopes

p.765 German atrocities during the retreat through Belgium: William I. Hitchcock, Liberation: The Bitter Road to Freedom: Europe,

1944–1945, London, 2008, pp. 61–3

‘miraculously grafted’: Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, New York, 1965

p.767 ‘Monty does what he pleases’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, p. 548

‘Steady, Monty!’: reported Maj. Gen. M. A. P. Graham, quoted Wilmot, The Struggle for Europe, p. 560

‘Had the pious’: Omar N. Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, New York, 1961, p. 409

p.769 ‘We are mentally and morally’: Sold. W. W., Flak­Rg.291, A.O.K.16, BA­MA RH 13 v. 53

p.770 ‘liability’: quoted Roberts, Masters and Commanders, p. 523 p.771 ‘into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral’: quoted

Martin Gilbert, The Second World War, London, 1989, p. 592 ‘open­mouthed’: GBP, 2.4.45

‘the most tiresome question’: TNA PREM 3/434/2, pp. 4–5, quoted Rees, World War II behind Closed Doors, p. 309

p.772 ‘thought rather cynical’, ‘No, you keep it’: Berezhkov, At Stalin’s Side, p. 304

p.773 ‘Britain went to war’, ‘And how many divisions’: ibid., pp. 309–10 ‘the flood of Bolshevism’: quoted Roberts, Masters and Com- manders, p. 527

p.774 ‘You know the Russians’: quoted Detlef Vogel, ‘Der Deutsche Kriegsalltag im Spiegel von Feldpostbriefen’, in Detlef Vogel and Wolfram Wette (eds), Andere Helme – Andere Menschen?

Heimaterfahrung und Frontalltag im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Essen, 1995, pp. 48–9

p.775 ‘Bismarckian style’, ‘It was fought in brilliant’: GBP, 4.10.44 ‘At that time’: ibid.

p.776 ‘malevolent appearance of a defeated city’: ibid. ‘I don’t get it’: ibid.

p.777 ‘The American patrol leader’: GBP, 20.10.44 ‘large blank­faced women’: ibid.

p.778 ‘Lithuanians hate us’: Efraim Genkin in Altman (ed.), Sokhrani moi pisma, pp. 276–82

‘The Special Detachment’: Mikhail Petrovich Chebikin, http:// www.iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/chebikin­mikhail­petrovich/ ‘What will have happened’: San.O’Gefr. Hans W., 2.Kriegslaz./ Kriegslaz. Abt.529(R), 30.7.44, BfZ­SS 24 231

p.779 ‘Most of them had no desire’: http://iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/ avrotinskiy­efim­mironovich.html

‘The Hungarians were actually’: Efim Mironovich Avrotinskii, http://iremember.ru/pekhotintsi/avrotinskiy­efim­mironovich. html

p.780 For the Nazis’ Budapest coup, see Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, pp. 734–7

p.781 ‘In the name of Christ – Fire!’: Krisztián Ungváry, Battle for Bu- dapest: 100 Days in World War II, London, 2010, p. 241 Persecution and attempts to save Jews in Budapest: ibid., pp. 236–52

p.783 Revolt in Cologne: Ian Kershaw, The End: Hitler’s Germany, 1944–45, London, 2011, p. 149

60 per cent of all bombs dropped on Germany after July 1944: ibid., p. 79

‘only became insurmountable’: ibid., p. 134

p.784 ‘The prayer for our Führer’: quoted Vogel, ‘Der Deutsche Krieg­ salltag im Spiegel von Feldpostbriefen’, in Vogel and Wette (eds),

Andere Helme – Andere Menschen?, p. 47

p.785 ‘At 05.15, the artillery preparation’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, p. 571

‘The whole damn company’: Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, pp. 430–1 p.786 ‘an eerie haunting region’: Russell F. Weigley, Eisenhower’s Lieu-

tenants, Bloomington, Ind., 1990, p. 365

allotment of replacements: Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, p. 438 p.787 ‘Squads and platoons’: quoted Paul Fussell, The Boys’ Crusade,

New York, 2003, p. 87

p.788 ‘two thousand­year stare’: Ellis, The Sharp End, p. 252 Casualties in the Hürtgen Forest: see Fussell, The Boys’ Crusade, p. 83

‘It probably won’t be ours’: Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, p. 433 53rd (Welsh) Division in Reichswald: Ellis, The Sharp End, p. 169

p.789 ‘Communist dressed up as a marshal’: de Gaulle, Mémoires de guerre, vol. iii: Le Salut, 1944–1946, p. 61

‘One never ceases to be Polish’: Hervé Alphand, L’Étonnement d’être: journal, 1939–1973, Paris, 1977, p. 180

43: The Ardennes and Athens

p.791 ‘GI’s in their zest for’: Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, p. 428 p.793 Bormann at Ziegenberg: Kershaw, The End, p. 145

p.796 ‘Where in the hell’: Chester B. Hansen, diary 17.12.44, Hansen Papers, USAMHI

p.797 ‘Fine, we should open up’: Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower, p. 613

‘a diversion for a larger’, ‘everything depends’: GBP, 17/12/44 p.798 ‘We’re packing up’: conversation with M. R. D. Foot, 2.12.09 p.800 ‘manure­filled, waterlogged villages’: Blumenson (ed.), The

Patton Papers, vol. ii, 9.12.44, p. 589 ‘When can you attack?’: ibid., pp. 599–600

‘Well, Brad, those are’: quoted Crosswell, Beetle, p. 816

p.802 ‘like Christ come to’: quoted Hamilton, Montgomery: Master of

the Battlefield, p. 213

‘chestnut pulling expedition’, ‘Destiny sent for me’: letter 21.12.44, Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, p. 603

782 German corpses: Harold R. Winton, Corps Commanders of the Bulge, Lawrence, Kan., 2007, p. 135

p.803 ‘a clear cold Christmas’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, 25.12.44, p. 606

‘the American Luftwaffe’: Ellis, The Sharp End, p. 72

p.804 Bodenplatte: Winton, Corps Commanders of the Bulge, pp. 213–15

‘It looks to me as if’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 23–30.12.44, p. 638

p.805 ‘suggested that de Gaulle’: DCD, 4.1.45

‘discussed all the evils of Monty’s press interview’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 8.1.45, p. 644

p.806 ‘to face geopolitical realities’: Mazower, Inside Hitler’s Greece, p. 268; events in Greece described here are mainly based on Mazow­ er’s excellent account

p.809 ‘resembled a besieged outpost’: Hastings, Finest Years, p. 536 ‘three shabby desperados’: ibid., p. 537

p.810 For the suffering of Belgium in the late autumn and winter of 1944, see Hitchcock, Liberation, pp. 64–9

p.811 Belgian civilians in the Ardennes: see ibid., pp. 81–90

p.812 Conditions in Holland: ibid., pp. 98–122; Collingham, The Taste of War, pp. 175–9

p.813 ‘For the attacking Canadians’: quoted Ellis, The Sharp End, p. 363

p.814 ‘psychological dependence upon’: Max Hastings, Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944–45, London, 2007, p. 171

44: From the Vistula to the Oder

p.815 ‘Thank God that’: BA­MA MSg 2/5275 v. 1.6.40

‘The young soldier’: György Thuróczy, Kropotov nem tréfál, De­ brecen, 1993, p. 103

p.816 ‘destroyed ten times’: quoted Ungváry, Battle for Budapest, London, 2010, p. 32. Ungváry’s account of the siege is the best and most reliable

p.820 ‘The bridges remained constantly’: Hans Bayer, Kavelleriedivi- sionen der Waffen-SS, Heidelberg, 1980, p. 347

p.821 ‘It was a girl’: Dénes Vass, quoted Ungváry, Battle for Budapest, p. 141

p.822 ‘Some streets must be guessed at’: Sándor Márai, ‘Budai séta’, in Budapest, Dec. 1945, p. 96, quoted ibid., p. 234

Wallenberg and Katyn´: Ungváry, Battle for Budapest, p. 281; arrest by SMERSh and execution: Beria, Beria, my Father, pp. 111, 336

p.823 ‘In many places they are raping women’: László Deseodiary, quoted Ungváry, Battle for Budapest, p. 234; see also Rees, World War II behind Closed Doors, pp. 322–9

‘70 percent of women’: quoted Ungváry, Battle for Budapest, p. 285

‘rampant, demented hatred’: quoted ibid., p. 287

‘no women and no booty’: Zolotov, Zapiski minomyotchika, pp. 187–8

p.824 ‘didn’t think that was quite’: Alexander, The Alexander Mem- oirs, pp. 132–3

‘This mission’: Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 420 p.825 ‘heavy rain and wet snow’: RGVA 38680/1/3, p. 40

p.827 ‘All the roads were filled with old people: Rabichev, Voina vsyo

spishet, vospominaniya ofitsera-svyazista, pp. 193–5

p.828 ‘Russian soldiers were raping’: Natalya Gesse in Richard Lourie (ed.), Russia Speaks: An Oral History from the Revolution to the Present, New York, 1991, pp. 254–5

p.829 ‘barracks eroticism’: Yuri Polakov quoted in Igor Kon, Sex and Russian Society, Bloomington, Ind., 1993, p. 26

‘A criminal is always a criminal’: Nikolai Abramovich Vinokur, http://www.iremember.ru/mediki/vinokur­nikolay­abramovich ‘The entire contents’: Rabichev, Voina vsyo spishet, vospomi-

naniya ofitsera-svyazista, p. 143

p.830 ‘tumultuous market’: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Prussian Nights, New York, 1983, p. 67

‘Germans abandoned everything’: letters from Efraim Genkin to his family, 22.1.45, in Altman (ed.), Sokhrani moi pisma, p. 321

p.831 Departure from Auschwitz: Hilberg, The Destruction of the

European Jews, p. 254

p.832 Kuriłowicz in Auschwitz report by Shikin: 9.2.45, RGASPI 17/125/323, pp. 1–4

‘around four million people’: BA­B R55/616, p. 158

p.833 ‘They were cowards’: Tkachenko of SMERSh to Beria, GARF 9401/2/93, p. 324

‘Our tanks have ironed’: VCD, 23.1.45

‘Everything is on fire’: Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/3/51, p. 231

p.834 ‘All this provides’: RGASPI 17/125/314, pp. 40–5 ‘We drove closer to Berlin’: VCD, 31.1.45

45: Philippines, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Tokyo Raids

p.837 The race for Manila: Spector, Eagle against the Sun, pp. 520–3 p.842 ‘Conscription comes’: Charles F. Romanus and Riley Sunderland,

The United States Army in World War II: The China–Burma– India Theater, vol. iii, Washington, DC, 1959, p. 369

p.843 Arrival of 37th Division in Indochina: Kawano, ‘Japanese Combat Morale’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 328

For Indochina in 1944 and 1945, see Gary R. Hess, ‘Franklin Roo­ sevelt and Indochina’, Journal of American History, vol. 59, no. 2, Sept. 1972; Ralph B. Smith, ‘The Japanese Period in Indochina and the Coup of 9 March, 1945’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, vol. 9, no. 2, Sept. 1978; Collingham, The Taste of War, pp. 240–2

p.844 Navy fighter pilots playing bridge: Toshio Hijikata, quoted Hast­ ings, Nemesis, pp. xxiii–xxiv

p.845 ‘precision’ bombing: Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, p. 268

‘Stay Alive in ’45’: Swift, Bomber County, p. 99

p.846 ‘Rock slides were tumbled’: Ellis, The Sharp End, p. 82

p.847 ‘The raising of that flag’: quoted George W. Garand and Truman R. Strobridge, History of US Marine Corps Operations in World War II, vol. iv: Western Pacific Operations, Washington, DC, 1971, p. 542

p.850 ‘Where the hell’: E. B. Sledge, With the Old Breed, London, 2010, p. 195

p.852 ‘When a kamikaze hits’: Keith Wheeler, The Road to Tokyo, Al­ exandria, Va, 1979, p. 187

p.853 ‘tossing grenades as fast’: Ellis, The Sharp End, p. 83 p.854 ‘So what?’: Sledge, With the Old Breed, p. 226

‘The sewage of course was appalling’: William Manchester,

Goodbye Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific War, New York, 1980, p. 359

46: Yalta, Dresden, Königsberg

p.859 ‘the weakness of the democracies’: Beria, Beria, my Father, p. 105 ‘On Poland Iosef Vissarionovich’: ibid., p. 106

‘The Americans are profoundly ignorant’: Lord Moran, Church- ill at War, 1940–45, London, 2002, p. 268, quoted S. M. Plokhy,

Yalta: The Price of Peace, New York, 2010, p. 153 p.860 ‘We shall allow’: Beria, Beria, my Father, p. 106

‘committed many sins against’, ‘mighty, free and independent’:

Tegeran. Yalta. Potsdam. Sbornik dokumentov, Moscow, 1970, p. 22

p.863 ‘so elastic that the Russians’: William D. Leahy, I Was There, Stratford, NH, 1979, pp. 315–16, quoted Plokhy, Yalta, p. 251 Stalin and death of Roosevelt: Beria, Beria, my Father, p. 113

p.865 ‘the direct outcome’: Plokhy, Yalta, p. 208

On Dresden, see Frederick Taylor, Dresden, London, 2004; Sir Charles Webster and Noble Frankland, The Strategic Air Offen- sive against Germany, 1939–1945, 4 vols, London, 1961, vol. iii; Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, pp. 232–61; Miller,

Eighth Air Force, pp. 427–41; Friedrich, Der Brand, pp. 358–63 ‘Berlin, Leipzig and Dresden’: Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, p. 254

p.866 ‘Are we now to abandon’: SOAG, vol. iii, p. 112 ‘Dresden was just another’: Bishop, Bomber Boys, p. 342

p.867 ‘the destruction of Dresden remains’: SOAG, vol. iii, p. 112

US Eighth Air Force casualties: Miller, The Eighth Air Force, p. 7 p.868 ‘around 18,000 and definitely’: Frederick Taylor in Der Spiegel,

10.2.08.

‘Kraft durch Furcht’: GSWW, vol. ix/1, p. 23 ‘Victory or Siberia’: TNA PREM 3 193/2, quoted ibid.

‘The misery that would follow’: quoted Vogel, ‘Der Deutsche Kriegsalltag im Spiegel von Feldpostbriefen’, in Vogel and Wette,

Andere Helme – Andere Menschen?, p. 45

p.870 ‘The number of extraordinary’: report of 12.4.45, TsAMO 372/6570/88, pp. 17–20

Stutthof concentration camp: RGVA 32904/1/19

‘The examination of the premises’: Shvernik to Molotov, GARF 9401/2/96, pp. 255–61

‘The shtrafroty positioned’: Yefim Abelevich Golbraikh in Drab­ kin (ed.), Svyashchennaya voina, p. 107

p.871 ‘I’ve only been at war’: Vladimir Tsoglin to his mother, 14.2.45, in Altman (ed.), Sokhrani moi pisma, pp. 260–75

‘When we reached the shore’: Rabichev, Voina vsyo spishet,

vospominaniya ofitsera-svyazista, p. 166

‘The port of Rosenberg’: Vladimir Tsoglin in Altman (ed.), Sokh- rani moi pisma, pp. 260–75

p.872 ‘But there was no question of that’: Karl­Heinz Schulze, ‘Der Ver­ lorene Haufen’, BA­MA MSg2 242

p.873 ‘Morale is low’: RGALI 1710/3/47, p. 25

47: Americans on the Elbe

p.874 ‘The Germans just don’t seem to understand’: GBP, 2/4/45

‘It is the fear of Russia’: Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, vol. ii, p.22.11.44, p. 580

p.876 ‘Go to the Stavka’, ‘into account’: Georgii Zhukov, Vospomi- naniya i razmyshleniya, Moscow, 2002, vol. iv, p. 216

p.878 ‘not the logical’: Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, p. 433 p.879 ‘minimize the general Soviet problem’: TNA PREM 3/356/6

‘Have a go, Joe’: quoted by David Clay Large, ‘Funeral in Berlin: The Cold War Turns Hot’, in Robert Cowley (ed.), What If?, New York, 1999, p. 355

p.880 Stalin’s meeting with Harriman and Clark Kerr: NA II RG334/ Entry 309/Box 2

‘Are you aware’: I. S. Konev, Year of Victory, Moscow, 1984, p. 79; Zhukov, Vospominania i Razmyshlenia, vol. iv, p. 226 ‘completely coincided’: VOV, vol. iii, p. 269

p.881 ‘much impressed’: ibid.

‘American tankists’: Krasnaya Zvezda, 11.4.45 ‘conquering with cameras’: NA II 740.0011 EW/4­1345

‘In the last few days’: Fritz Hockenjos, BA­MA MSg2 4038, p. 16 ‘We have gone through small towns’: GBP, 16/4/45

‘One passes through’: Stephen Spender, European Witness, London, 1946, quoted Swift, Bomber County, p. 164

‘Roads are still thronged’: GBP, 2/4/45 p.882 Gardelegen massacre: GBP, 16/4/45

p.883 ‘Alex, where are you going next?’: Bolling, quoted Cornelius Ryan, The Last Battle, New York, 1995, p. 229

p.884 ‘Where in hell did you get this?’: quoted ibid., p. 261 p.885 ‘should shake hands’: NAII 7400011 EW/4­2345

‘My Führer, I congratulate you!’: Hugh Trevor­Roper, The Last Days of Hitler, London, 1995, pp. 89–90

‘take a whole world’: Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, p. 398

p.886 ‘empty phrases and promises’: report of 28.3.45, quoted Evans,

The Third Reich at War, p. 714

‘Hitler became paler’: conversation with Generalleutnant a.D. Bernd Freiherr Freytag von Loringhoven, 4.10.99

p.887 ‘a mixture of nervous energy’: conversation with Generalinspek­ teur a.D. Ulrich de Maizière, 9.10.99

Eighth Army offensive in Italy: Churchill Papers 20/215, quoted Martin Gilbert, Road to Victory: Winston S. Churchill, 1941– 1945, London, 1986, pp. 1288–9

Order of the Day: BA­MA RH19/XV/9b, p. 34

p.888 ‘To accustom you to death!’, ‘See you in the mass grave!’: Helmut Altner, Berlin Dance of Death, Staplehurst, Kent, 2002, pp. 41 and 17

48: The Berlin Operation

p.889 ‘There will be no pity’: TsAMO 233/2374/92, p. 240 p.890 ‘Comrade Ehrenburg Oversimplifies’: Pravda, 14.4.45

‘morally and politically unstable’: TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 454 ‘unhealthy moods developed’: Serov to Beria, 19.4.45, GARF 9401/2/95, pp. 31–5, 91

p.891 ‘Tell me, are you also’: conversation with General a.D. Wust, 10.10.99

p.892 ‘Refugees hurry by’: Altner, Berlin Dance of Death, p. 54

p.893 ‘So, you’ve underestimated’: Zhukov, Vospominania i Razmysh- lenia, vol. iii, p. 245

p.895 ‘Zhukov is not getting on very well’: TsAMO TsGV/70500/2, pp. 145–9

‘undertaking a large­scale reconnaissance’: NA II RG 334/Entry 309/Box 2

p.898 ‘the sacrifice of children’: BA­MA MSg2/1096, p. 6

p.899 ‘The farmers stand at their garden fences’: Altner, Berlin Dance

of Death, p. 69

p.900 ‘Due to the slowness’: TsAMO 233/2374/92, pp. 359–60

p.901 ‘In the dining room’: Theo Findahl, Letzter Akt: Berlin, 1939– 1945, Hamburg, 1946, p. 146

‘It’s all over, my child’: Moorhouse, Berlin at War, p. 360

For suicides in Germany at the end of the war, see Christian Goeschel, Suicide in Nazi Germany, Oxford, 2009

p.902 ‘You will see, the Russians’: quoted Gilbert, The Second World War, p. 670

p.903 ‘mental sickness consisted’: conversation with Generalinspekteur a.D. Ulrich de Maizière, 9.10.99

‘Because the fascist clique’: TsAMO 233/2374/93, p. 414 p.904 ‘tragi­comedy’: BA­MA MSg1/976, p. 22

p.905 ‘Do you really believe’: Fritz Hockenjos, BA­MA MSg 2 4038, p. 24

p.907 ‘are very amiable – so far’: Rabe, The Good German of Nanking, pp. 218–20

‘Frau ist Frau’: conversation with Magda Wieland, 11.7.00 Rape estimates and deaths from rape and suicide: Dr Gerhard Re­ ichling, in Helke Sander and Barbara Johr, Befreier und Befreite. Krieg, Vergewaltigungen, Kinder, Munich, 1992, pp. 54, 59

p.908 ‘The Führer in Berlin’: NA II RG 338 R­79, pp. 37–8

p.912 ‘Now he’s had it’: Zhukov, Vospominania i Razmyshlenia, vol. iv, pp. 269–70

p.913 ‘at the head of his troops’: Trevor­Roper, The Last Days of Hitler, p. 188

49: Cities of the Dead

p.916 ‘I am unable’: Efraim Genkin in Altman (ed.), Sokhrani moi pisma, p. 282

‘Victors are not judged’: Ehrenburg, Men, Years – Life, vol. v, p. 37

‘People were living with their fate’: conversation with Lothar Loewe, 9.10.2001

‘The people were not to blame’: Fritz Hockenjos, BA­MA MSg 2 4038, p. 25

p.917 ‘traitor of the Motherland General Vlasov’: GLAVPURKKA, RGASPI 17/125/310

p.920 ‘A merciless fight’: TsAMO 372/6570/78, pp. 30–2 ‘systematic anti­Soviet talk’: RGVA 38686/1/26, p. 36 ‘counter­revolutionary crimes’: GARF 9401/1a/165, pp. 181–3

p.921 ‘On the roads of Germany today’: GBP, 19/4/45 ‘An old woman traveller’: RGALI 1710/3/51 ‘Some American prisoners’: GBP, 19/4/45

p.922 ‘Those identified as murderers’: Kenneally, The Honour and the Shame, pp. 205–6

Operation Unthinkable: TNA CAB 120/691; see also Hastings,

Finest Years, pp. 571–7

p.923 ‘The idea is of course’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 24.5.45, pp. 693–4

‘again discussed the’: ibid., p. 695 p.924 ‘a new Yalta’: Plokhy, Yalta, p. 383

‘In a few days’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 2.7.45, 3.7.45, p. 701 Stalin’s security for Potsdam: Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, pp. 439–40

p.925 ‘completely shattered’: Alanbrooke, War Diaries, p. 709

p.926 ‘It must be very pleasant for you’: Berezhkov, History in the Making, p. 168

‘a landing in Norway’: Beria, Beria, my Father, pp. 112–13 p.927 ‘Churchill was standing by the door’: ibid., p. 118

‘Well, prime minister, I know’: quoted Hastings, Finest Years, p. 578

‘Socialist, sir’: the late A. H. Brodhurst to the author

p.928 On Titoist massacres in Slovenia, I am grateful to Keith Miles and Jože Dežman for documents on the subject; also papers from the symposium at Teinach, Austria, 30.6.95

Czech expulsions: Snyder, Bloodlands, p. 320

p.930 ‘Murder became ordinary’: Czesław Miłosz, The Captive Mind, London, 2001, pp. 26–9

‘If we are American’: Anne Applebaum, New York Review of Books, 11.11.10

50: The Atomic Bombs and the Subjugation of Japan

p.933 ‘A honky­tonk’: White and Jacoby, Thunder out of China, p. 267 Opium trade in Communist areas and inflation: see Chang and Halliday, Mao, pp. 337–41

‘I just tried to choose’: Enomoto Masayo in Rees, Their Dark- est Hour, p. 74; on cannibalism by Japanese forces, see Tanaka,

Hidden Horrors, pp. 111–34

p.934 For Unit 731 and Japanese biological warfare, see Tanaka,

Hidden Horrors, pp. 135–65

Experiments on bomber crews: NA II RG 153/Entry 143/Boxes 1062–73 and 1362–3; Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, p. 160

p.935 ‘incapacitated soldiers’: Allied Translator and Interpreter Section Southwest Pacific Area, quoted Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, p. 160

p.936 ‘Do not survive in shame’: quoted Hastings, Nemesis, p. 57

‘the army had dug’: quoted Robert P. Newman, Truman and the Hiroshima Cult, East Lansing, Mich., 1995, p. 43

p.937 ‘they may expect’: Spector, Eagle against the Sun, p. 555

p.939 ‘Japan lost the war’: 37th Division soldiers, quoted Kawano, ‘Japanese Combat Morale’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The

Battle for China, p. 328

1,336 cases of rape: Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, p. 103

p.940 For Japanese colonists in Manchuria, see Collingham, The Taste of War, p. 62

‘From then on’: quoted Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, p. 102

p.941 Red Army column in Chahar: Yang Kuisong, ‘Nationalist and Communist Guerrilla Warfare in North China’, in Peattie, Drea and van de Ven, The Battle for China, p. 32

p.942 ‘deeply, irrevocably convinced’: Smedley, China Fights Back, p. 116

For the race to take Hong Kong, see Snow, The Fall of Hong Kong, pp. 231–62

p.943 ‘What’s a Jeep?’: Wasserstein, Secret War in Shanghai, p. 266 p.944 ‘widespread practice of cannibalism’: Tanaka, Hidden Horrors,

p. 126

p.945 ‘to combine the duties’: Beria to Stalin, 22.6.45, GARF 9401/2/97, pp. 8–10

p.946 ‘died as a result of the interaction’: Snyder, Bloodlands, p. 381